Mercy For Mankind (Rahmatul-lil-Alameen)


Nothing in the teachings of the Prophet or his life represents anything other than peace. He is described in the Quran as 'mercy for the worlds'.


Mercy For Mankind (Rahmatul-lil-Alameen)

Qazi Sulaiman Mansoorpuri

Translation Sharif Ahmad Khan


New Delhi-11 0002


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Publisher'snote ........ 10

Author'spreface ........ 11

Introduction........ 12

The approach of the commission of prophethood ........ 28

Commission of prophethood ........ 29

Khadijah'sassurance to him as evidence of his high quality of his character ........ 30

Evidence of warqa bin naufal on the prophet's prophethood ........ 30

The beginning of preaching the islamic faith ........ 30

The divine command of overt preaching ........ 31

The condition of the world at the time of his being raising ........ 32

The harague ........ 35

The sermon of the mount and calling makkans to faith ........ 35

The prophet's preaching efforts ........ 36

The prophet's preaching in fairs and markets ........ 36

The opposition by the quraysh ........ 37

The strategic plans of quraysh against islam ........ 37

Mal treatmentof the prophet (p.b.u.h.) By the quraysh ........ 39

The party for mockery and denigration of the prophet ........ 40

Muslim migration to abyssinia ........ 41



Amir hamza embraces islam ........ 48

'Umar faruq's (r) islam ........ 48

The prophet under siege in a gorge for three years ........ 49

Abutalib's death ........ 50

The saddemise of khadijah-al-kubra (r) ........ 50

The prophet's (p.b.u.h.) Preaching mission to the tribes outside makkah ........ 51

Theprophet's (p.b.u.h.) Visits to different places on his preaching mission........ 53

Suwaid bin samit's islam ........ 53

Calling the messengers from yathrib to faith ........ 54

Ascension........ 55

Tufail bin 'amr dausi embraces islam ........ 55

Abu zarr(r) embraces islam ........ 56

The reasons behind migration ........ 58

The bai'ah 'uqabah the first ........ 58

Mus'ab ibn 'umair (r) ........ 59



Bai'ah uqabah the second ........ 59

Usaid embraces islam on mus' ab's exhortation ........ 60

The entire tribe of sa'd bin mu'az became muslim in one day ........ 61

The prophet's (p.d.u.h.) Discourse on the agreement of 'uqbah ii ........ 61

The twelve heralds of the apostle of allah ........ 62

The quraysh caught hold of two persons from yathrlb ........ 63

The muslims permitted to migrate ........ 63

Hindrance in migration -resistance by quraysh ........ 63

Migration of the prophet ........ 64

The meeting of the chiefs of quraysh for planning of the murder of muhammad(p.b.u.h.) ........ 64

The approved plan of prophet's murder and selection of murderers ........ 65

Divine decree against human plans ........ 65

Thirteen years of prophethood in makkah ........ 69

Islam of baridah and seventy others en-route to yathrib ........ 70

Prophet's arrival at quba ........ 70

The first khutba friday (harangue) of the prophet delivered at bani salim bin 'auf atmadinah ........ 71

Entry to madinah ........ 72

The conditions of makkah compared with those at madinah ........ 73

Chapter I........ 75

Extension of the charter to the tribes around ........ 76

The quraysh intended to attack muslims in madinah ........ 77

The first conspiracy of the quraysh against the muslims ........ 77

The second conspiracy ........ 77

The threat of the quraysh of makkah ........ 78

First attack of quraysh on muslims of madinah ........ 78

The vast army of quraysh and surety of their attacks ........ 78

So far the muslims had not been permitted to fight ........ 79

The second attack of quraysh or battle of badr ........ 80

The third conspiracy of the quraysh and the plan to murder the prophet (p.b.u.h.)........ 82

The third attack of the quraysh ghazwah al-saweeq ........ 83

The fourth attack of the quraysh or the battle of uhud ........ 84

Anas bin nadhar's zeal and passion for laying down his life ........ 86

The valour of abu dujanah, hanzilan, 'ali murtaza and talhah (r) ........ 86



The height of perfection of belief and love of islam ........ 87

Overlooking faults and forgiveness by the prophet (p.b.u.h.) And his prayer for the pagan oppressors ........ 87

The fourth battle by the quraysh and death of ten preachers ........ 87

The behaviour of khusaib (r) and zaid (r) in captivity ........ 87

Love of life compared to the love of the prophet ........ 88

Another conspiracy and murder of seventy preachers ........ 88

The fifth attack of the quraysh, violation of treaty or conquest of makkah ........ 89

Instructions to the army and orders for amnesty ........ 90

The bai'ah with the newly converted and its conditions ........ 93

The mode of bai'ah of women ........ 93

The consequences of the makkan conquest the reasons of entry to allah's religion incrowds ........ 95

The defence against hawazin and thaqif or the battle of hunain shawwal 8 a.h........ 96

Unparalleled generosity and mercy ........ 98

Honour conferred on the daughter of his wet nurse ........ 99

A model of generosity of the really sincere ........ 99

Fasl (chapter)........ 99

The first mischief of the jews tumult, murder and expulsion of banu qainuqa' ........ 100

The second mischief of the jews or banishment of banu nadir ........ 101

The third conspiracy of the jews, the general Insurrection resulting in the ba'itle ofahzab (confederates) or battle Of trench ........ 101

The evilend of Banu Quraizah ........ 103

Chapter I........ 104

The revenge of the murder of an ambassador of islam or the battle of mauta, jamadii 8 a.h ........ 105

Jaish 'usr (military expedition of distress) or the battle of tabuk Rajab 9 a.h........ 105

Death of Zu-al-bajadin ........ 109

Ka 'b(r) bin malik's hard trial ........ 112

The prisoners of war ........ 116

Chapter II ........ 119

The edict addressed to the monarch of abyssinia ........ 121

8. Khusroparvez (checero) -kisra of iran's violent reaction ........ 130

Chapter III ........ 132

Daus deputation ........ 132

Necessary instructions for those calling to islam ........ 133



Deputation of sada' ........ 133

Thaqif deputation ........ 134

Fornication is strictly prohibited in islam ........ 135

Usury (taking interest on things lent) is also strictly prohbited ........ 135

Liquor is also strictly prohibited ........ 136

'Abd-al-qals deputation ........ 138

Things to adhere to ........ 138

Deputation of bani hanifa ........ 139

The tay deputation ........ 140

The deputation of ash'arin ........ 141

The deputation of azd tribe ........ 141

Farwah bin 'amr aljuzami's deputation ........ 142

The deputation of hamdan ........ 142

Deputation of tariq bin 'abd-allah ........ 142

The deputation of najeeb ........ 144

The deputation of bani sa'd huzaim ........ 145

The deputation of bani asad ........ 146

Deputation of bahra' ........ 146

Deputation of 'azrah ........ 147

The deputation of khulan ........ 147

The deputation of makharib ........ 148

The deputation of ghassan ........ 149

Deputation of al-harith ........ 149

The deputation of bani eish ........ 149

The deputation of guamid ........ 150

The deputation of bani fazarah ........ 151

God does not recommend anyone or to anyone ........ 151

The deputation of salaman ........ 151

Deputation of najran ........ 152

The deputation of nakha' ........ 152

Chapter IV ........ 154

The construction of the mosque of the prophet (p.b.u.h.) ........ 154

'Abd-allah bin salam's islam ........ 156

Islam of the learned monk 1st year of hijrah ........ 156

Prayer........ 157

Fraternisation........ 158



Azan (call for prayer) ........ 159

Salman farsi's islam ........ 160

Change of qiblah (turning in prayer from bait-al-maqdis to ka'bah in makkah ........ 160

Zakat-the share of have-nots in the wealth of haves ........ 163

Ramadan 2 a.h ........ 167

Islam of thamamah bin athal, chief of najd ........ 169

The treaty of hudaibiyah 6. A.h ........ 171

The real gain of the treaty ........ 174

Muslim pilgrimage to ka'bah and its consequences in the 7th year of hijrah ........174

The fourth conspiracy of the jews preparations Afoot for invading madinah, islamic advance on them or battle of Khaibar, muharram 7 a.h ........ 175

Khalid(r) bin waleed's islam 8, a.h ........ 178

'Amr bin 'as embraces islam ........ 179

'Adi bin hatim ta'i's islam 9 a.h ........ 180

'Adi bin hatim's episode ........ 180

Hajj (pilgrimage to ka'bah) ........ 181

The harangue of the prophet on the occasion of the last or parting hajj ........183

The ghadeer harangue ........ 186

The appearance of the disease ........ 188

The last week ........ 188

Five days prior to ids departure ........ 189

Four days before departure ........ 190

Just a day before departure ........ 190

The last day ........ 191

Agonies of death ........ 191

Funeral bath and shrouding ........ 193

Funeral prayer ........ 194

Chapter v........ 194

His silence and speech ........ 197

His smiling and weeping ........ 197

Instructions about diet ........ 198

Visiting the sick ........ 199

Treatment of diseases ........ 199

Speeches (harangues) ........ 199

Sadaqah and gifts ........ 200

His own praise ........ 200



Pointing out the reality or correcting an erroneous belief ........ 201

Regard for the general expediency ........ 201

Affection shown to children ........ 202

Kindness to the aged ........ 202

Honour and prestige of the excellent ........ 202

Prayer for the person engaged in service to allah ........ 202

Respect and regard for others and hospitality ........ 203

Affection and clemency ........ 203

Justice and compassion ........ 204

Clemency to the enemites ........ 205

Generosity and benignity ........ 205

Modesty and bashfulness ........ 206

Patience and meekness ........ 206

Forgiveness and mercy ........ 207

Truth and trusts ........ 208

Modesty and chastity ........ 208

Abstinence........ 209

Consideration for the weaker sex and aiding them ........ 209

Taking care of the prisoners of war ........ 210

Mainly physical exercises ........ 210

Archery........ 210

Horse racing ........ 211

Census........ 211

The teachings of the apostle of allah ........ 211

Allah's mercy ........ 212

Serving the parents ........ 212

Mutual help ........ 212

Who is a muslim ........ 212

Perfection of belief ........ 212

The(sweet) taste of belief ........ 212

Desirable deeds ........ 212

Prohibition of undertaking of burdensome acts ........ 213

Labour approved, begging forbidden ........ 213

Enviable persons ........ 213

The best moral teaching ........ 213

Forbidding evil traits and developing fraternity ........ 214



The rights of the neighbour and the guest ........ 214

Speaking and silence (keeping quiet) ........ 214

The guarantee of salvation from the prophet ........ 214

Teaching patience and gratitude ........ 214

Who is a real athlete? ........ 214

The guidelines for da'is (those calling to faith) ........ 214

The effect of love (attachment) ........ 215

Treatment to be meted out to the prisoners, the indigent and the sick ........ 215

The reward of planting a tree ........ 215

Sympathy and compassion to animals ........ 215

Teaching and training of slave girls ........ 215

Who is a hypocrite? ........ 215

Who would be entitled to shade from the lord on doomsday ........ 216

Obedience to rulers ........ 216

The role of the elite in public affairs ........ 216

Protection to be offered to the alien community living in a muslim state under a pledge of loyalty ........ 217

Life is valuable and desire to die is its under valuation ........ 217

The two blessings that often go uncared for ........ 217

Excellence of payment of debt ........ 217

The true definition of wealthiness ........ 217

Equality in general ........ 217

Mercy abounding ........ 218

Excellence of leaving inheritance for the survivors ........ 218

Exampl eof the finer sex and humouring them for agreeable relationship ........ 218

Woman's position in a household ........ 218

The high position of one with deep knowledge of the quran ........ 218

Most pleasing words in the sight of allah ........ 218

The glorious qu'ran ........ 219

Metaphysical realm of islam a. Discernment of the divine entity ........ 221

8. The definition of true faith ........ 222

C. What for does allah want good deeds from man ........ 222

D.Shari'ah was meant to perfect man's humanity ........ 222

E. The duties of the prophet ........ 222

F.Retribution both here and hereafter ........ 222

G. The divine sunnah alters not ........ 223



H. Only personal effort can be fruitful ........ 223

I. The lofty position of patience and piety ........ 223

J. The position of wisdom ........ 223 

K the fruit of patience: ........ 224

L.Cutting oneself off from greed ........ 224

O. Forging falsehood is inimical to belief ........ 224

Q.Worship of allah is divine baptism ........ 224

R. Pen and writing praise worthy ........ 224

S. Signs of allah for the wise ........ 224

T.Swearing prohibited ........ 225

U. Call to total peace (islam the religion of peace) ........ 225

V. Mutual reform ........ 225

W.Teaching forgiveness and overlooking faults ........ 225

X. True teachings manifest themselves ........ 225

Principles of governance 

1. Judges must be learned ........ 225

2.Mischief prohibited ........ 226

3.Iniquity brings destruction ........ 226

4.Righteousness gives stability ........ 226

5. To avoid war preparedness is the only way ........ 226

6. To conduct the affairs of the state consultation is a must ........ 226

Teaching and learning 1. Listening to wisdom, pondering over then and adopting the best........ 226

2.Acquiring knowledge from aliens ........ 227

The system of preaching faith 

1. Establishment of a party calling to faith a must........ 227

2.Selected few from neo-muslim groups should Visit the centre of faith and religious learning and go back to teach the Ignorant lot ........ 227

Recomendation and rectification of morals 

1. Characteristics of the finer sex (frailties of women) ........ 227

2. The intimate relationship of husband and wife ........ 227

3. Mutual obligations of husband and wife ........ 228

4. Love of allah in the highest degree, the demand of belief ........ 228

5. Faith and knowledge raise and in the sight of allah ........ 228

6. Man specially favoured by allah ........ 228

7.Superiority of man demands Unitarianism (total rejection of ascribing partners to allah) ........ 228

8. Man can take a lesson from lowly creatures ........ 228



9. Signs every where for those with seeing eyes ........ 228

10.Hearts and minds learn wisdom through travel And also eyes see beti'er and earshear better ........ 229

11.Hearts not the eyes Are blind in reality ........ 229

12.Forbidden things not clean and pure and clean and pure things not forbidden........ 229

13. And to give up clean and pure things is a satanic act ........ 229

14.Insight and guidance only in the life term granted as trial and not on its cwsure ........ 229

15. Only those true in faith can attain high position ........ 229

Culture 1. Animals and birds have communities like those of human beings, ultimately to be gathered to their lord ........ 229

2. Everything here on earth has been created for the benefit of mankind ........ 229

3. Everyone acts according to his innate nature ........ 230

4.Different classes of people of various grades Needed to run a political set up as part of the trial, the purpose of Creation ........ 230

5.Emphasis on equality in rights and equity ........ 230

6. The muslim ummah is the well wisher of humanity ........ 230

7. The basis of muslim fraternity ........ 230

8. Those incapable of it should not be entrusted with their property (wihch is reallynational wealth) ........ 230

9. Fear of impoverishment satanic suggestion and should not prevent us from a generous deeds ........ 231

10.Covetous selfishness is not good for us ........ 231

11. The servans of rahman are neither sting not yet extravagant ........ 231

12.Sea-borne trade more profitable to man ........ 231

13. For whom the abiding bounties of allah ........ 231


Books on the theme of Seerah are plentiful in every major language of the world, Urdu included. Among the outstanding, that by Qazi Muhammad Sulaiman, Salman, Mansurpuri, Rahmatul-lil-'Alamin has some peculiar features and distinctions of its own. Lie other tall scholars such as his name-sake, contemporary, an intimate friend, helpful to him even after his death, Allamah Syed Sulaiman Nadvi, he has particularly


[next] seen to it that no unauthentic material finds its way to his work, and inspite of his passionate love for this greatest person of all ages, he has been on his guard not to make him of demigod (for example calling him Ahmad minus the "m", like some blind devotees) thus maintaining the difference of human and divine. At the same time, he has forcefully and convincingly brought out the excellences and greatness of this ideal personage, not only from Torah and Injil but Hindu scriptures as well where he has come for nation, refuting any false accusations levelled against the Aposlte of Allah by the enemies of Islam for about a millenium and a half.

The book in hand, Mercy for Mankind, the brief selective English version of the well-known urdu original, by the above mentioned learned author, is a condensed form of the three volumes (the last, two devoted entirely to research) leaving nothing of real importance to the average reader, save these details, of little interest, even barring, to the average reader. If at all, they have been touched casually. However, he has taken great pains in bringing out the peculiarities of the last Apostle of Allah, highly praised by the Quran, and its semblance to his predecessors, in some respect, even his superiority but with due regard to thier positions that they are not denigrated for every one of them was exclusively gifted in this behalf, over and above all others.

For the non-Urdu-knowing lovers of seerah we have made an attempt to present a useful compendium with the above features, helpful in moulding their characters on the ideal pattern, the "Khulq-e-Azim" of the Quran, together with other vital Quranic teachings.

This much from us. It ultimately rests with the readers to judge it for themselves. We pray to Allah to make it beneficial, serving the useful purpose in view, and bless with His Mercy all those involved in making the publication of "Mercy for Mankind" possible. And Peace and blessings of Allah be showered on His Apostle.

Syed Sajid I Ali


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, Most Merciful

Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the entire Universe And Peace be on all the Messengers of Allah, Peace and blessings on His servant and Apostle, Muhammad, The chosen, the leader of the prophets and the Last of them, and on all his family and Companions, the


[next] pure and clean, may Allah be, pleased with all of them.

Since long it has been my earnest desire to write three books on the life history ofthe leader of (P.B.U.H.) under the following scheme:

1. A brief biography with the simple authentic events. 2. A medium volume with same greater details 3. A comprehensive life history in much greater detail covering all aspect of his life and mission for which material from authentic sources can be collected. The first brief book was written out and published in 1899 under the little 'Muhr-e-nubuwat' (seal of prophethood). The medium one, in hand, has been named 'Rahmat-al-Alameen' (Mercy for Mankind) in three separate volumes. The second volume, extension of the 1st and in greater detail came out in 1921 and the third will follow soon. (But the another could not see it in print in his life and it came with the preface by another great scholar, Maulana Syed Sulaiman Nadvi, in thirties Tr.) After these I intend to take up the third book on "Seerah' more comprehensive than these two in much greater detail covering all about the life, mission and other matters concerning Islam in keeping with my limited scope of knowledge. (That however, remained a dream since he did not live long enough to see the third volume, of his second attempt in the series as stated above. However, we believe on good authority that 'Allah Willing' he will be rewarded for his good intentions and plans. Tr.)

I have no pretensions to be able to do justice to this vast subject (unlimited as the attributes and acts of the 'Perfect Man' and Leader of the Prophets' are, I am taking this liberty with the idea that this humble effort of mine if it benefits even one individual it would not be considered to have been washed. As for the reading material in this book. I have done my best to present only the authentic. I pray to Allah to accept this humble offer of mine and reward my worthy father Qazi Ahmad Shah of late lamented memory.

Qazi Muhammad Sulaiman Salman Mansurpuri,



About 2,000 B.C. Babylonian empire was at its zenith. The financial condition was stable and military might superb. The abundance of wealth and perfect peace had made the ruler so arrogant and self involved and conceited that he ordered a gold image of him to be installed in the biggest and most important temple of the empire with orders


[next] that it should be worshipped as their deity by his subjects. They should prostrate before and address all their invocations to this earthly god.

The Lord of the universe raised Abraham for the guidance of his servants. Noah (P.B.U.H.) had much earlier been commisioned for guidance in this region but his efforts of a life time extending over centuries had resulted in saving a few soul from eternal harm' and the rest of the contending lot had been drowned in the deluge. And so it was so long after him. The Babylonian ruler was displeased with this new voice of the unity of Allah, the Lord, Creator and Sustainer of the worlds, since that was a direct attack on his sovereignty in the name of the real Supreme Sovereign, Allah, before whom he also had to bow. So Abraham's family which had been in favour with the royal family and the court did not take it easy and were annoyed with their son. After a prolonged struggle with his father and under threat from him, he gave up his reform and left his land of birth with Sairah or Sarah his consort and Lot bin faran, his nephew, both agreeing with his teachings.

Abraham (P.B.U.H.) had with him flocks of goat and sheep which multiplied with the blessings of Allah, becoming big flocks enough for sustenance.

Due to droughts the green pastures on which his flocks susbsisted become arid wastes and he had to move on and gradually entered Egypt. The ruler, 'Riqium' also called by some as Totase was originally a citizen of Babylonia. (It is possible Abraham (P.B.U.H.) in opting for Egypt had, it's ruler's origin and hence a reason for introduction and preference.

The Egyptian king in taking Sairah (Sarah) as a lady from his former homeland liked her for himself. But Allah soon enough made him understand that she was the wife of a selected great prophet of his. He gave due respect to Abraham (P.B.U.S.) and when leaving Egypt, he sent with him his own daughter, Hajirah (Hagger of Bible) so that she may receive proper training in 'good company' and may get married in her ancestral land in some high placed ancient family. And Allah gave him his first born, Isma'il (P.B.U.H.) by this happy union

Sarah gave birth to a second son Isac (Ishaq), although she was old and barren, was yet blessed by Allah in old age. Allah had given glad tidings to Abraham (P.B.U.H.) that these two sons of his will be full of blessings and shall be the ancestors of great nations and communities and their progeny shall be innumerable. So the wise and worthy father had assigned to them separate territories under Allah's commands and also at the


[next] request of his own family.

Syria was assigned to Isac since Babylonia lay to its eastern side and he could contact his maternal relations easily. Arabia was assigned to Ismail being nearer to Egypt, his maternal relations country. And with all those advantages, the two brothers were close to each other, no alien country intercepted them. They could come to each other and if need arose for it.

Ismail (P.B.U.H.) was married to the daughter of Madad of Banu Jarham tribe. Banu Jarham was an old ruling tribe of Arabia and Madad was the independent ruler, of his territory. Ishaq (P.B.U.H.) got married in the family of his mother. In this way physically the children of the same family got distanced from one another. But due to providential management they came close to one another also on so many occasions.

Moses (P.B.U.H.) flew for asylum to Arabia to escape pharaoh's rage and revenge (after an unintentional murder). And when he departed from egypt with the Israelites after crossing the Red sea on foot, had taken refuge in the Arabian wilderness and spent forty years due to their transgression against Allah.

David the prophet-king (P.B.U.H.) when he flew from his country for fear of king Samuel, he too had found safety in Arabia.

When the Israelites were destroyed by Bukhte-Nasr (Nebuchadnezar) they had been offered asylum in Arabia by Ma'add bin Adnan and lived there comfortably and honourably. Now comming to our subject directly, let us take up the episode of Ismail (P.B.U.H.), our Prophet's direct ancestor.

Ibrahim (P.B.U.H.) had brought him, yet a suckling, with his mother to a place in Arabia where Makkah Stands today. It was wilderness then. Though he had left them alone with the unflinching trust in Allah that only a Prophet is capable of, Banu Jarham had come and settled close by when water (Zamzam) had become available in that perfectly dry neighbourhood. Ibrahim, on his prophetic mission, always on the move, used to visit his wife Hajirah and son Ismail from time to time. When the son had come of age, both father and son by joint efforts raised a house of Allah, close to Ismails' residence. This was a mosque (cubical in shape). Ibrahim and Ismail had also prayed to Allah, not only to accept and recognize their humble service (raising Ka'bah) but also that he should provide sustenance for them (those in habiting the wilderness) in the form of fresh fruits of all kinds and other eatables, as also should raise a great messenger from him for their


[next] guidance.

Ismail (P.B.U.H.) had twelve sons. They divided Arabia of that time among themselves. On the western side they went on spreading as far as Egypt, their maternal country and to the south they touched Yemen where their father had lodged their brethren Banu Qaturah. And northward they approached Syria, the home land of their brethren Banu Ishaq.

In this way the sons of the same father became the inheritors of the two ancient cultured civilizations those of Baylonia and Egypt. They also got command of parts of Red sea and Indian ocean from where they could take hold of the trade and commerce of the then civilized world. The central part Arabia too they came to possess which had been invincible for the outsiders thus offering protection to Arabs.

Isma'ils (P.B.U.H.) second son Qeedar enjoyed a very outstanding position. His offspring lived mostly in Makkah. Like their illustrious father they always met the needs and rights of the mosque in Makkah, the first ever centre for "education of the unity of Allah.

Among the offspring of Qeedar, after 37 generations, there came one, known as 'Adnan. His younger brother Malik too had established a kingdom in Yemen.

After 'Adnan Bani Jarham came to have sway over these people, although they were their maternal uncles, (their mother, Isma'ils wife came from Bani Jarham). But in spite of this old relationship Bani Jarham) had ousted their nephews, Isma'il's offspring from Makkah in 207 C.E. since Banu Ismail had not so far followed Banu Jarham in idolatry.

But Qusa'y in the fifteenth generation after Adnan II regained pessession of Makkah. And establishing a Coalition government in Makkah in 440 C.E, established the following offices.

I. Rifadah 2. Saqayah 3. Hijabah 4. Qayadah 5. He also gave shape to a national mark known as Lava' 6. A national assembly was another institution established (National Flag) by him known as Nadwah or Dar-al-Nadwah. After Qusa'y came his son Abd Munaf, his son Hashim, his son Abd-al-Muttalib (born 497 C.E.) and his son Abu Talib became chief of Makkah in succession. Our leader, Muhammad (P.B.U.H), whose biography we are writing (reading) was the grand son of Abd-alMuttalib.

The statements made above must have brought home to you the facts who were the


[next] inhabitants of Arabia and who were their neighbour with the sort of relation with them. Something more about Arabia needs explanation.

Arabian Peninsula is surrounded by the Red Sea in the west, Indian ocean in the south, Persian Gulf in the East and Syria in the north. A mountain range separates it from Syria, and the Suez Canal separates it from Egypt. Between India and Arabia there is the Arabian Sea.

Arabia is twice the size of France, and different regions have their own outstanding peculiarities. The Yemen valley and and the hills of Ta'if are so prominent in their verdure as to be an envy for the most fertile regions of the Indian sub continent. The rocky region of AI-Hijr and the vast sandy desert of the Central Arabia is an arid waste without a blade of grass to be seen anywhere, Comparable to the Sahara Desert of north Africa. Of the period of the birth of the celebrated personality, we are going to begin an account, the social and moral conditions were the worst that can be imagined about any society in the world.

Politically, the southern Arabia was in the possession of the Abyssinian Christian kingdom, the eastern portion occupied by the Persian empire and the northern region was totally under the sway of the eastern wing of the Roman empire with its centre at constantinople. The interior though self presentively independent, but each of the big powers that surrounded it had a covetous eye set on possessing it somehow.

The internal autonomy of the interior had had a very much corrupting influence on its inhabitants. The autonomy had created head-strongness in them, for want of any authority to check their wilfulness and arrogance. They had targeted their own brethren to demonstrate their value and temerity. Indolence and idleness had habituated them to gambling and drinking which became their second nature. Due to their lack of mixing with other nations and communities intimately, their language and racial characteristics had remained in a state of purity, but they exploited their power of eloquence either in self-praise or in denigration of others, or else to propagate their shameful deeds they spent their power of speech to the last limits and the disgrace of it that they did not spare even their female partners in debauchery from dragging into mire. Isolation or forced segregation had set in their minds the giving of their daughters into marriage as a disgraceful act and those self styled claimants to nobility very boldy and proudly buried their daughters alive.


 [next] Ignorance had given rise to idolatry in them. And idolatory getting a strong hold over their minds and hearts, stones, trees, moon, sun, mountains, rivers etc they had taken as their gods. And in this way forgetting the Greatness and Majesty of Allah, had forgotten their own worth. Those who forgot Allah and He made them forget themselves (Q. LIX:19). So there was neither any regulation for Human Rights nor any Law to bring them to the proper centre. Murder of man, highway robbery, habeas corpus, Illegal exploitation, meddling in matters unnecessarily, Elopment of women or their abduction by force, burying their daughters alive, were all the fruits of this tree-that idolatry had made human being the most degraded and lowest of the low creature.

The inertness of years rather generations and centuries had it deeply impressed on their minds that no condition better than theirs, no culture better than their own and no religiosity superior to theirs was possible.

In the various parts of Arabia due to the rule of different countries and kingdoms and relationships of the Arabs with them, there were other religions too to be met with everywhere. Judaism, christianity and Zoroastrianism were such religions, mere mention of which can convey to an uninitiated person the wrong impression that among these people there must have been models of the goodness of these religions. But the pertinent fact is that the followers of these religions instead of rectifying themselves had corrupted religions in turn, because of their own black deeds. If Moses, Jesus and Shoaib (P.B.U.H) had an occasion to see these followers of their feelings. They would not have recognized and owned them as their own.

Christians in general call Jesus Christ the son of God, but the christians of Arabia believe Mary, mother of Jesus to be the wife of God and the angels the daughters ofGod. And the idolators called Lat and 'Uzza the female gods. (Lat is the feminine form of ilah and 'Uzza the feminine form of A'az). The Jews of that period called their prophet 'Uzair the son of god because they had witnessed his remarkable deeds of recouping the entire Torch from memory after the original had been destroyed in a synagogue by the great invaders in an all out destructive invasion. But the Jews of Arabia called every male and female of their community sons and daughters of God, and darling son and darling daughter.

The Zoroastrians took their daughters and sisters as their wives or mistresses. (Since like wealth under their ideology woman was also the common property, there was no discrimination and incest was the common practice).


 [next] All the communities of Arabia with the exception of a few individuals, were ignorant (illiterate), far from learning and arts, unacquainted with culture, and foreign to any idea of reconciliation and forgiveness. Atheists and Agnostics and Naturalists also formed a part of population. They attributed life and death to accidents and time, regarding every revolution in the world as the work of time. Affirmation of the existence of God, the concept of reward and punishment, the results of good and bad deeds in this world was a mockery to them.

Due to all these Arabia, so to say, was the aggregate of the evils of false religions and unhealthy concepts.

A glance at the map of Arabia brings to light the fact that its situation is peculiar in as much as it falls in the centre of Asia, Europe and Africa. And both land and sea routes join the continents to its right and left. So in such a country, approach of various religions and their corruption under the influence of an ignorant society is plausible. And similarly it too can be easily understood that if for the guidance of the whole world a single centre were to be established any where that could be Arabia alone. Specially when considering that particular period, we can say that since Arabia had easy approach to Africa. Europe and various countries of Asia geographically, the chances of a clarion call from Arabia reaching these continents were sure enough.

It was for this reason, as I understand it, the Lord of the Worlds had in His Initial Plan that Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) should be born in Arabia and laid upon him the responsibility of the guidance of his own bilih place, country but gradually the entire world. Those studying the conditions under which the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) had to canyon his prophetic mission, Can very well appreciate how difficult it was and has decently with persevering patience and great toleration he started with it, and how he, spreading among them, culture and civilization, knowledge and morals brought together the communities and countries, so to say a house divided upon itself, how he raised the status of man, how the unity of Allah was propagated, and making an indelible impression of the Greatness and Majesty of the Lord, he proved all that existed and also the causes subservient to man.

How the Apostle of Allah over looking the racial, national characteristics, local conditions, distinctions of wealth and poverty, the differences of the conqueror and the conquered, the varieties and distinctions of languages and complexions, joining all these elements together under one single faith, he made them united, in complete agreement


 [next] on principles, similar, equal in human status, similar in ideas, co-religionists and of one voice.

And when he had finished this difficult task and brought His servants close to Allah and also close to each other, and replaced hatred and animosity with victory and power removing darkness and ignorance filled their minds with knowledge and light of Truth, And finishing this job most satisfactorily, judging by human standards and making the Lord of all the created beings witness over it along with his fellow creatures, how happily and open countenance, he left this temporary earthly abode to meet the Lord-the Supreme Companion.

To have an idea of the magnificent work of the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) we must cast a glance at the fine model's of humanity, the man in whose heart the seed of Islam had been sown, which bore excellent fruit Najashi of Abyssinia. Jaffer of Oman, Akeedar, the king of Daumat-al-Jundal.

The wild tribes of Najd, bedouins of Tohamah, and the indigenous of Yemen are proud of standing in the same rank Abdullah bin Salam of Judaic community, Warqah bin Naufol of the Christian community and 'Uthman bin Talhah the leader of the Ibrahim's following, leaving their elevated positions are proud of becoming the servants of Islam.

The slave of the Jews, Salman Farisi, attains the high position of being honoured by the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) "He is one of my family”. And the slave of the idolators Bilal of Abyssinia is addressed by Faruq A'zam (Umar) (R) as 'our leader'. He is the second rightly guided caliph whose name sends a shiver in the bodies of Caesor and Kisra. The distinctions of color, the bars of nationality, the characteristics of the geographical entities have all disappeared. Any casual reference even to pride of ancestry is regarded as a sign of baseness. The single faith of the unity of Allah has brought together all the most diverse elements to one 'millat', with the same passion, the same idea pervading the minds (exaltation of the Religion of Allah) and tongues busy with the same call for the reputation of the faith. The enemies have become friends and sworn enemies have changed into most faithful companions. That 'Amr bin 'As who had gone to Najashi to represent the Quraysh for the extradition of Muslims that had migrated to Abyssinia as a result of persecution only after a few years goes to the king of Oman as a da'i (preacher) of Islam and brings back the pleasing news of large number of men of that country embracing Islam to the Prophet in Makkah.

That same hero of the infidels, Khalid bin Waleed commanding a contingent of the


 [next] idolators considers the destruction of Muslims as the mission of his life, after some time comes to the Prophet as a servant of Allah and becomes the 'Sword of Islam' (Saif-Allah) and demolishes the temples of the Lat and 'Uzza becoming one ofthe best generals of the Islamic Force. That 'Urwah bin Mas'ood who had come to the Prophet at Hudaibiyah to stop Muslims's entry into Makkah, comes to Madinah of his own accord and obtaining permission of calling people to Islam, ultimately loses his life in this mission. That same Suhail bin 'Amr who had come to Hudaibiyah as the commissioner of the Treaty and who had insisted on his objection to 'the Apostle of Allah' as an appelation to the name of Muhammad, after the death ofthe Prophet delivers such a powerful speech on Islamic Truth and in support of Islam that fills the hearts of hundreds of his listeners with peace and faith in Islam. The same 'Umar bin Khattab who had come out of his house hell-bent on the murder of the Prophet, on the day of the sad demise of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.), sword in hand announces that whoever says the Prophet is dead, will be beheaded. That Wahshi, the Abyssinian slave, who killed Amir Hamza treacherously mutilated his dead body, becomes a Muslim after sometime, and avoids cominq before the Prophet, finally makes short shrift of Musailamah (the false claimant to prophethood) thus making amends for his past career.

That same Abu Sufyan bin Harith Abd-al-Muttalib, who inspite of being a first paternal cousin had been satiring and lampooning the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) by the Grace of God comes to the Prophet and in the battle field of Hunain, he alone is seen holding the stirrup of the Prophet all along.

That leader of Quraysh in every encounter for seven years Abu Sufyan bin Harb, creating all sorts of mischief in the land against the Muslims, embraces Islam on the occasion of the conquest of Makkah and is sent as governor to the christian land of Najran. That Tufail Dausi (Yemeni) who went about Makkah with his ears plugged with cotton to keep away the voice of Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) at last came to a stage where he went about in his own country and conveyed the Message of Islam to every house he could find his way to. That Abd Yaleel Thaqafi who had set his slaves and street urchin's to throw brickbats on Muhammad (P.B.U.H.), at last came to Madinah and it was from there that he had brought the costliest jewels, those of faith and Belief to his people in Ta'if. That same Baridah bin -Alhasib Aslami who on a promise of a hundred red camels, had marched at the head of seventy cavalry men for the arrest of Muhammad (P.B.U.H.), after a few hours became the standard bearer of the Apostle ofAllah. These striking examples are too many to be quoted here.


 [next] All these were the marvels of that excellent pure teaching that was gradually conquering people's hearts. Most of the Prophets that we know through the Quran had exhibited trans-forming marvel's, club, python, stones, river, fire becomming harmless to their people.

But the Prophet (P.B.U.H.), may our parents be sacrificed to him, showed the marvel of marvels in his changing the hearts of men by the Grace of Allah and making the stained souls clean and pure. The difference between man and club, snake and stone is the same as the difference between this marvel and other miracles.

And this is that difference which has been the cause of the amazement and absorption of those who have inspite of their antagonism, tried to say or write on this subject.

If only the believers appreciate the value of these teachings, and get fully acquainted with the blessed aim of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.). If only they come to regard protection of Islam their sacred duty. If only they come to value the survival of Islam most important than their own lives, thoes of their children, their parents, their religious guides (pirs) and other venerable personalities. And that is not at all difficult for Allah.

It is an amazing characteristic of the Seerah of the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) that there is room for every one to which ever social class he may belong, to carve a nich for himself taking a pattern according to his own capability, thus receiving the needed guidance from the blessed life.

The Apostle of Allah had become an orphan before birth. So indigence and poverty were well known to him. The first few years of his life in infancy he had spent with his wet nurse in rural simplest atmosphere. So simplicity and informality had found on lasting place in his life. When he was a young boy his community was engaged in long drawn wars like Harb-al-Fujjar. Therefore, the value of general atmosphere of peace and sympathy (with the weak and oppressed and those suffering in war) was deep seated in his heart from a very early age.

He lived a bachelor's life upto the age of 25, the entire period of adolescence and youth, passed with perfect modesty and chastity and due regard for decorum. The evidence of those who were witnesses to that period of his life, is on record that he was more modest than any purdah observing modest virgin.

The Prophet had made the choice of trade as the means of subsistence. And in the way


 [next] under his guidance it became the best means of earning livelihood for all those gifted with patience and perseverance, given to deep thinking on matters, and perception of demand and affability and forbearance.

In handsomeness and ideal of perfection, high placed in the matters of ancestry, he quietly accepted the marriage offer of a woman fifteen years his senior and a widow twice married earlier. And in this decision of his lay a precept for the remarriage of the widows (generally in disfavour in the ignorant societies then as now). And now he also proved in his marital life, a model of temperance demonstrating how even in wedlock one can abstain from slavery to passion.

This first consort of his, was a wealthy lady in her own right. But the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) due to his life pattern of contentment and abstention proved himself independent of his wife's and his family's financial assistance. And in this way he set another example for the guidance of those who believe only in self-help.

In a short span of time the Prophet influenced the fierce blood thirsty Arabia with his life based on truth and sympathy, and in every heart he had made a place for himself with love and respect, thus establishing a model of righteous living for those thus inclined. He had only demonstrated has goodness and truth can subdue oppression, iniquity and ignorance.

The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) fully understood the blessings and power of cooperation and close association under cultural demands, and with the establishment of the association known as Halaf-al-Fuzul he paved a road for establishment of peace and protection of human beings, and provided a lesson for all times for all those who are honestly desirous of promoting their country, by offering the citizens of the country a share in its organization and administration.

In settling the dispute of fixation of Hajar Aswad (the sacred black stone) in the most amiable and lovable manner he had tactfully demonstrated how people of diverse opinions and interests come together by chance, can be easily placed and brought to a common point of agreement. And in achieving this and successfully he had also amply demonstrated that evasion of an impending war and to strengthen the cause of peace it is not always the military might but so often a tactical move, that come of a high order of mental capability does the job in the most satisfactory manner.

In the prophethood and its mission is reflected the eminence, glory and grandeur of that of all the prophets of Allah.


[next] Like Masih (P.B.U.H.) he was falsified and persecuted, but remained calm and patiently persevering.

Like Yahya (P.B.U.H), John the Baphist as he is known to the christians and the rest of the un Islamic world, he too at great pains conveyed the Divine Message to human dwellings and people in the wilderness.

He cleansed the House of Allah of the pollution of polytheism and idolatory with other corrupt practices, restoring it to its past purity and glory before polytheism like 'Isa (P.B.U.H.) who turned tables upon his corrupt community, the Judaic order of the day who had changed their synagogues into houses of money landing and pawn shops in their stage of worst degradation.

Like Job (Ayyub PB.U.H.) he also spent three years in a shale of siege with his family (Banu Hashim) in a mountain gorge, Sha'b-e-Abi Talib, without loud protests, complaints and patience all this while in the face of untold sufferings of hunger and other hardships due to total boycott. Instead his heart was full of the praise of Allah and his tongue by with His Remembrance.

Following the example of Nuh (P.B.U.H.) Noah, he also preached Islam to his unfortunate, rather wretched community, openly and in secret, privately and publicly, in public meetings and fairs, in the public streets and crossings on high ways, in hills and plains alike, making people ashamed of their loathsome deeds.

Like his ancestor Ibrahim (Abraham, P.B.U.H.) he had to leave his home and hearth leaving his birth place and community behind, and in search of a clean spot favourable for the plantation of the seedling of Islam he visited and tried other places after disappointment from Makkah for the success of his mission.

And like David (Da'ud, P. B.U.H.) he succeeded in getting out safely from his highly besieged resting place on the night of migration to Madinah.

And like Janah (Yunus, P.B.U.H.) who had lived for three days in the stomach of a giant fish, (probably a whale), had resumed his mission of conveying the message of Islam to his community, he too had spent three days and mights in the seclussion of the Thaur Cave of Makkah before raising his voice in proclamation of the word of Allah in Madinah.


 [next] And like Moses (Musa, P.B.U.H.) who had got liberated his community, the Israelites, from the grip of the great tyrant, Pharoah, the Apostle of Allah too liberated the northern region of Arabia from the sway of the Christian emperor of constantinople, the eastern wing of the Roman umpire from the bondage of pagan Iran and the south zone from the galling yoke of Abyssinaian subjugation.

Like Solomon who had built a House of Allah in Palestine, he did it in Madinah which has ever been a glow with the brilliance of the unity of Allah and filled with those remembering Allah, which unlike that of Solomon's temple, no Bukht-Nasr (Nebuchadnezar) could ever touch.

Like Yusuf (Joseph, P.B.U.H.) supplied food grains to his tormentors and persecutors of Makkah (through Thamamah bin Athal of Najd) when they were dying of hunger due to a severe drought. And it was these hard hearted blood thirsty enemies of his, whom he forgave so graciously and setting them free after the conquest of Makkah, made them obliged.

He was simultaneously the ruler like Moses and their leader like Harun (P.B.U.H.), Aoren.

The blessed Apostle of Allah had all the brisk activity of Nooh, (P.B.U.H.), the kind heartedness of Abraham, the letting off and forgiveness of Joseph, conquests like those of David, (P.B.U .H.) the patience (in suffering) of Jacob (P.B.U.H.) the humility like that of Jesus, the abstinence of John the Baphist (P.B. U.H.) and like his direct ancestor Isma'il, (Ishmael P.B.U.H.), his selflessness and unflinching devotion and obedience to Allah in its most perfect (ideal) form.

What others had individually, he had in his all together.

Although the Apostle of Allah as the leader of the prophets had the peculiarities of almost all of them at once, yet he had that one peculiarity of being 'Mercy for Mankind': We sent not thee but as a mercy for all creatures. (Q. XXI: 107) was overwhelming and together with other excellent traits has illumined the world with a chosen huminosity not met with else where.

(It is impossible for mortals like us to bring this luminousness into full prominence and glory of one whom Allah Himself magnified and praised in the Quran-to say the least whose morals was the Quran:


 [next] Ghalib thau-a-e-khowajah ba yazdan guzashtem,

Ka-an Zat-e-Pak Martaba Dan-e-Muhammad ast.

Being incompetent we leave the praise of our leader to Allah Who alone knows the real worth of Muhammad (P.B.U.H.)

Allah that is possible is to relate his pious, pure and perfect life in simple language very briefly. (That is what the author claims for himself). May Allah looking only to my sincerity of intent, forgive my brethren in the Islamic Faith, in view of my incapabilities and unworthiness otherwise, in the field of learning and knowledge, overlook and forgive my short comings in this write-up of mine

The humble servant of Allah

And a Devoted follower of His Apostle

Mohammad Sulaiman

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, Most Merciful and His Blessings on His Noble and Munificent Apostle

Our leader Mohammad bin Abdullah bin Abd-alMuttalib bin Hashim bin Abd. Munaf bin Qusay is our prophet. The grandfather (Abd-al-Muttalib) gave him the name Muhammad and his mother named him Ahmad as suggested to her in a dream by an angel.

The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) is among the progeny of Ibrahim (the prophet befriended by Allah and the father of a large number of prophets (p.b.u.h.), borne by his consort, Hajrah, said to be daughter of the then Egyptian ruler. Ibrahim (Abraham of Bible p.b.u.h.) enjoyed such a priviledged position that angels used to come to him with messages from Allah.

Isma'il (P.B.U.H.) was the first born son of Ibrahim (P.B.U.H.) borne by Hajrah, and the mother with her suckling baby boy. Isma'il were left to fend for themselves in a dry wilderness where the sacred city, Makkah stands today. It was under the definite command of Allah and He, the Beneficent Lord of mankind and the entire creation, made a spring of water (Zam-Zam) to gush forth close to their dwelling as a marvel of


[next] His Unbounded Mercy in their distress. Isma'il when he grew up married the daughter of Madad, the leader of the wandering tribe, Banu Jarham, who had come in quest of water and settled here. Isma'il was gifted by Allah with twelve sons. Qidar was the most outstanding among them. Among the offspring of Qidar, Adnan gained prominence and Qusay in that of Adnan, are the ancestors of the Prophet.

Aminah, the daughter of Wahab, the leader of the Banu Zohrah tribe, he and Abdullah having a common ancestor in Fahr, entitled Quraish, whose tribe was held in great esteem in Arabia that makes it evident enough that the Prophet comes of the noblest nation, tribes and their best offshoots in Arabia, both on the paternal and maternal sides.

Our Prophet (p.b.u.h.) was born in the sacred city of Makkah in the spring season on Monday early morning before sun-rise, the 9th of Rabi-I the third month ofthe Lunar Calendar, Aam-aI-Feel which accords with 22nd April 571 C.E. He was the only son of his parents, his father having died before his birth.

The grand personage of Makkah, Abd-al-Muttalib, his grand-father, on learning of the birth of a son to his 24 years old dead son, Abdullah, came to see the new born, took him to Ka'bah, the sanctum sanctorum, and prayed that this beloved living token of his dead son may be blessed. On the seventh day after his birth, he offered sacrifice and invited the Quraysh to a feast. On learning the name of the new-born, some of them wondering on this novelty in nomenclature in the familial and tribal Arab tradition, were told that he wished this grand child of his to come to enjoy universal honour and praise.

As customary with the then Arab nobility, the child was entrusted to the care ofa wet-nurse from wilderness, Halimah Sa'diyah, for suckling and care of the babe in the free open air atmosphere far from the thickly populated towns. She used to visit the parents or guardians every six months with their child under her care. After two years he was weaned, and was brought to his mother Aminah, who sent him back with her wet-nurse for consideration of the healthier climatic condition of his abode so far.

However, on attaining the age of four years, the mother called her child back from Halima's custody and upkeep, but only two years later, she died entrusting him to the loving care of the grandfather, Abd-al-Muttalib. At the age of eight years, he was left alone, once again, on the death of this guardian, and was taken over by his uncle, Abu Talib, for upbringing.


 [next] On attaining the age of discretion, he thought of taking to trade, but due to resourcelessness it could not materialize. However, a wealthy woman, Khadijah, noble and generous by nature and given to trade through male agents of reliable reputation, came to his resume in this behalf on hearing of his fine traits of character, truthfulness, honesty and discretion, herself offered him a chance to undertake business on her behalf with requisite resources. He accepted this offer and due to his careful handling of purchase and sale of the goods, he came back with reasonable profit.

On this journey, Khadijah's slave had accompanied him and returning home related in detail to his mistress all the fine qualities of his (the prophet's p.b.u.h.) character and his generous behaviour in this journey. She was so pleased with what she learnt now (as if by personal experience), that, in preference to several other, apparently better offers of wedlock, she, through proper channel offered herself to him in marriage. He accepted it and entered wedlock at the early age of twenty-five while Khadijah was forty.

As a devoted and loving partner in life she lived for twenty-five years, sacrificing every thing for his noble cause. Even after her passing away, he used to praise her and treated her female companions with kind regards.

After this conjugal relationship, the Prophet used most of his time in devotion to Allah in solitude and service to fellow beings and working for their welfare.

And it was during this period that he met the tribal chiefs and other sensible persons and invited their attention to total lack of safety of life and property in the land, at home and abroad, highway robberies and tyranny and oppression of the mighty meted out to the weak and oppressed. After deliberations on association came into existence, comprising Banu Hashim, Banu AI Muttalib, Banu Asad, Banu Zohra and Banu Tamim tribes.

The members of this association used to observe the following:

1. They will do all in their power to ensure safety of life and property of people in their homes and on highways.

2. They will provide safety to the travelers.

3. They would go on helping the poor in every possible manner.

4. They would hold the hand of the oppressor and tyrant thus safeguarding the under


[next] dog. Through this benevolent measure the safety of life and property of mankind was ensured to a great extent. Even during the period of his being commissioned with Prophethood the Prophet used to say that if even now a call is given in the name of this benevolent body for cooperation and practical help, it shall find him ready to fully cooperate in every possible manner.

This successful mission of maintaining peace and protection and preservation of human rights and many such other acts of goodness to humanity at large in a thorougly corrupt society given to all sorts of worst evils found a soft corner in the hearts of the people and the Prophet as the moving spirit in this campaign, endeared himself to those coming in close contact with him and he came to be called the truthful', the trustworthy' instead of his proper name.

When the Quraysh decided upon renovating the old and dilapidated building of Ka'bah due to age and a devastating flood, the Prophet was thirty-five years old. They, one and all, worked together in the construction in perfect co-operation. But when it came to fixation of 'Hajar Aswad', the sacred black stone, rivalry and competion was awakened and they started quarreling for the unique honour and distinction of putting it in its proper place. When this tug of war had continued for four days, the seniour most person among them, Abu Umayyah bin Mughirah suggested that they should agree to his solution to this contentious issue that the first person entering Ka'bah would be taken as the arbitrator. As it had to happen, the Prophet was that first person and was loudly acclaimed with slogans of 'the Truthful', the Trust worthy' is here and we all cheerfully agree to abide by his decision. And he with his well known wisdom and discretion ended the contention in such a beautiful manner which pleased every one without exception. He spread out his sheet on the ground and placing the stone on it asked the tribal chiefs to lift it up together (holding the sheet on all sides) and when it had been brought to the proper site, he himself lifted it and fixed it in its place.

It was no ordinary feat. The success that he had thus obtained had put an end to a bloody inter-tribal war that would have taken a heavy toll of life and property. They were given to unsheath their swords on most petty pretexts like watering their flocks and herds, in horse racing, in poetic competitions and such other paltry quarrels, causing bloodshed and total extinction of tribes.


Seven years ahead of his being raised as the Prophet an illumination, sort of a hight


[next] without any sound or any definite shape had started appearing which perplexed him. With the closer approach of the commissioning he took more and more to seclusion. Equipped with water and 'Sattu' (parched and ground barley or wheat) only, he used to go out of the town to the small Hira cave for days together and remained absorbed in remembrance of the Lord, praising and glorifying him and contemplating His Power and Marvellous working, returning only on exhaustion of his food and water supplies.

At this juncture dreams started coming to him that came true in real life (as an early sign and a fore-runner of prophethood).


At the age of forty and a day, on Monday the 9th of Rabi I, (Lunar Calendar) 41st year of the Prophet's birth according with 12th February 610 C.E. the trustworthy spirit, Jibril angel Gabriel of Bible, came to him with the Grace of Allah to raise him as His Last Prophet and the leader of the prophets raised so far, while he was in Hira cave engaged in meditation.

The messenger of Allah said, '0 Muhammad (p.b.u.h.), receive the glad tidings that you are to be raised as Prophet of Allah, and I am Jibril, at your service under the Command of Our Lord.

The first few verses of Surah Alaq (Q. XCVI: 1-5) were also revealed to him, the first awe-inspiring experience of revelation. He immediately left Hira for home, lay down and asked his wife to wrap him. When he regained his peace of mind, he said to her. 'I have been through an unusual experience which are frightening, jeopardizing my life itself.


Khadijah assuring him of the fine traits of his character said, "You need have no fear of any hazards to you. I witness your affecton for your relations, the varacity of your spoken word, your staunch support of widows, orphans and helpless destitutes, your hospitality and sympathy for the deprived and the distressed. I hope Allah shall never bring you to grief."

Now for her own peace of mind, she needed some other source of assurance in this behalf, and she took him to a cousin of hers, Warqa son of Naufal.


 [next] Now, as evidenced by the history of the period, Christianity had set foot in Arabia due to the evangelical efforts of Najashi (ruler of Abyssinia) and Caesar (the Roman emperor), and about the time of the raising of the last Prophet, there were persons in that land who had acquired religious knowledge from the learned men of Judaism and Christianity and cutting themselves off from the paganism of Arabia had, in turn become the harbingers of the arrival on the scene of an Apostle of Allah in near future, who was going to vanquish Iblis (Satan) and his progeny. Among these bearers of glad tidings were 'Uthman bin Huraith, Ubaid, Zaid bin 'Amr and Warqa bin Naufal were outstanding.

Zaid bin 'Amr, the uncle of 'Umar Faruq (R) the second rightly guided caliph, is that distinguished person who had travelled extensively in quest of the promised messiah and finally learning that he would be born in Makkah, had settled here and die waiting for him.


At the request of his consort, Khadijah, he related to Warqa the incident of Jibril's visit in Hira cave. Warqa at once assured him that the visitor was no other than the messenger of Allah who had earlier visited the Prophet Moses (p.b.u.h.). If onJy I was younger and had lived up to the time when your community will drive you out of this town of your birth.

The Prophet (p.b.u.h.) asked him, 'Would they be so cruel?" Warqa explained to him that whoever came forward with such teachings anywhere was meted out such antagonism and persecution (in the beginning). "How I wish I could live up to the time of your expulsion (migration and may be of outstanding co-operation and support to you," he sadly concluded.

After some time, the angel from Allah visited again. He brought him to mountain side, himself performed 'Wuzoo' (ablutions) and the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) followed him and then both prayed together. Jibril leading the prayer.


On getting home the Prophet started preaching. Khadijah (his consort), 'Ali (8 years old cousin), Abu Bakr (friend) and Zaid bin Harith (a freed slave under his patronage)


 [next] entered the fold of Islam by these pious souls, who were closely associated with the Prophet's life and aware of the minutest details of his character and behaviour, is dazzling evidence of his truthfulness and integrity.

Bilal bin Ribah, 'Amr bin 'Aubasa and Khalid bin Sa'd bin 'As also embraced Islam soon after. Allah be pleased with all of them.

Abu Bakr was a wealthy trader, dealing in fabrics. He was a sociable person with wide contacts and through his preaching 'Uthman (R) 'Amir bin Abd-Allah bin –al Jarah, (who later came to be called 'Amee-al-Ummah' (trustworthy of the community), Abd-al-Asad (R) bin Bilal, 'Uthman (R) bin Maz'un, 'Amir (R) bin Faheerah Azdi, Abu Huzaifah (R) bin 'Utbah, Sa'd bin 'Uthman Maz'un and Arqam became believers.

Among the ladies, after Khadijah (R) Um-al-Fazl

(R) the wife of Abbas (R), the uncle of the Prophet, Asma (R) bint 'Umais (R), Asma' (R), bint-e-Abu Bakr (R) and Fatimah (R) sister of 'Umar (R) had the grace and good fortune of embracing Islam. For purposes of strict secrecy and fear of interference by the pagans of Quraish, these early Muslims prayed in a narrow gorge in the mountains.

During the first three years of his mission, the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) also preached quietly, leading to the worship of the One and only true God, Allah from their Polytheistic worship of so many other false deities, the sun, the moon and other inanimate objects around them.


Now time was ripe for preaching openly and at this juncture Allah revealed the following verses:

O thou wrapped up (in a mantle)! Arise and deliver thy warning! And thy Lord do thou magnify! And thy garments keep free from stain! And all abomination shun! Nor expect in giving any increase (for thyself)! But, for thy Lord's (cause) be patient and constant! - Al Quran LXXIV: 1-7


1. Warning the transgressors of their dangerous position due to their evil deeds and consequences thereof.


[next] 2. Making manifest to them the Lordship and Cherishing, and Greatness and grandeur and Sublimity and Glory ofAllah.

3. To teach people how to keep away from both the overt and covert filth and stains of their creed, deeds and morals.

4. To teach and train them to keep themselves clean and chaste.

5. To impart religious instruction utterly oblivious of any material gain, even expecting show of gratitude.

6. To put up patiently persevering with any

calamities and hardships coming in their way in the discharge of this duty.

Whoever contemplates the life style of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) in detail will come to the conclusion how beautifully he met these ends in their entirety. The preaching mission of the Prophet gradually progressed through the following stages:

1. The closest relations and particular companions and friends

2. The entire community including the citizens of Makkah.

3. The tribes around and in close vicinity to Makkah. 4. All the Arabian tribes ofevery part of the country. 5. All the civilized and cultured nations of the then known world and all the major religions of the three continents. Asia, Africa and Europe. During the twenty-three years of this life consuming and baneful preaching mission of his, the Prophet put up with all sorts of difficulties, hardsrups and hazards with patient perseverance and cheerfully with due regard to firmness, perfection and large-heartedness. He had made his teachings attractive and convincing, backed as they were with most manifest arguments and firm practical demonstrations from human thought and experience.

We shall see more and more of these five stages of missionary work and in much greater detail as we proceed with his life mission covered in this book.


It would be in the fitness of things to keep in mind the glaring fact of history that at the time of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) being raised to put the affairs of mankind in order, this


[next] world of ours was badly in the grip of barbarity and beastliness. Humanity, civility and morality were mere words to be found in books only but nowhere in the life of humanity at large. Hearts were hardened and eyes deprived of vision and hence unable to perceive the difference between right and wrong, goodness and evil, iniquity and justice.

A. The Israelites had come to deserve the reputation of being declared vipers and their offspring long before 'Isa (P.B.U.H.), (Jesus Christ of the Gospels) formally conferred that title on them. Barring their physical resemblance to human beings, there was nothing humane in them after bieng cursed by Christ as evidenced by the Quran alone:

Curses were pronounced on those among the Children of Israel who rejected Faith, by the tongue of David and of Jesus the son of Mary because they disobeyed and persisted in excesses. - Al Quran V: 78

And iconolatry had gained finn ground in their lands under the evil influence oftheir pagan neighbours.

B. Ignorance and barbarism reigned supreme in Europe. Briton and Saxon wild tribes inhabited British Ishes.

In Northumberland, Midland counties, Norfolk, Sofakk, Sussex districts of England, they worshipped the idol Wordon. France was no better in the matter of civilization and culture. Many evil practices were in vogue connived at even by the priests. It remained engaged in a deadly struggle with the saxons on the river Elbe and continued even after 782 C. E. when over four thousand saxon prisoners were killed mercilessly in Wordon town. Hungary was occupied by an extremely wild, uncivilized wandering people. They had been converted to christianity cruelly compelled to it by use of brute force.

C. Iran was entirely under the influence of Muzdak Movement who, much in the likeness of the present day communists had made woman, wealth and land common property and created corruption and chaos that knew no bounds. Thus putting an end to morality and human progress.

D. This was the period of Puran culture of Hinduism in India and Bam Margi community held the reins of power and influence, leading the people in a state of helplessness to their own debasing and demoralizing principles. Their places of worship were over crowded with nude figures of males and females in stone which were worshipped. Dev Dasis or nuns, unmarried daughters donated to the temples by their


[next] parents to serve the needs of devotees and a source of carnal pleasure and vast income from this prosperous business of religious prostitution. It survives to this day in some parts of south India. The atmosphere of these houses of worship was further made detestable, almost nauseating by carvings in stone and paintings depicting unabashed sex activity in the name of Art. Ajanta, Ellora and Khajurahu remind of them to this day.

E. The Chinese, taking their country as the kingdom of the heavenly son, had turned away from their real Creator, Lord and Sustainer. Different departments of life and their multifarious jobs were assigned to as many gods, rain god, god granting progeny, war and peace gods, all under the supreme sovereignty of the King who could punish them for misbehaviour. Confucious is regarded the great reformer of China, but he was yet to arrive at this scene of sad affairs.

F. Christianity was at its height of power and influence in Egypt. Contentios arose on the most ordinary and unimportant issues like praises of the identity of Christ and his position as son of God (Christian creed) unity of God and partners, involving never ending discussions, giving rise to ever increasing new, fangled creeds and new sects on that basis. These mutuals conflicting sects declared one another apostates and mercilessly killed their antagonists and burnt them on pyres. This was the state of affairs in the countries that were under powerful rulers and influence of religious orders of some sort and each and every one of them claimed to great advancements in the realm of learning and culture.

G. Arabia can be considered and judged in this light, with due regard here in particular, to the fact that this was a country where for centuries there had been neither any monarchial order nor any system of law gained currently and popularity among the people. No religious leader or reformer had been born here who could make them civil and law abiding. Over and above this beastly freedom, lack of knowledge and learning, ignorance and seclusion and estrangement from all the cultured people of the countries around had made them all the more spoilt and thoroughly corrupted.

It was this most deplorable condition that made them deserving of Divine Mercy and the Lord and Cherisher of the Worlds most mercifully pleased to start the mission of universal reformation from their desert land mostly devoid of natural resources as the hub of activity and making them the model to be emulated by the rest of the world once they were convinced and went out determined to make the earth a paradise.

The Apostle of Allah (P.B.U.H.) with his devoted companions took up his missionary


 [next] work and they most pious souls got busy with it whole-heartedly, making the guidance and welfare of mankind their only aim in life. It was regular, peaceful and gradual. When the divine injuction.

And admonish thy nearest kinsmen- Al Quran XXVI: 214 was revealed, the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) invited all of them to a feast. The assembly of guests comprised exclusively Bani Hashim, forty or there about in number. That might the Prophet got no opportunity to speak due to the loquacity of Abu Lahab. So he called them again the next night to dinner. When the dinner was over and the guests had taken milk as the last item, the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) addressing them said:



I have come to you (commissioned by Allah) for the well-being of all you Here and Hereafter. And I do not know if there ever come to you anyone, in entire Arabia, with better 'provisions.' Allah has commanded that I should invite you to it. Tell me, who among you is going to stand by me on giving me a helping hand in this work?

On hearing this from the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) there was no response from the audience save 'Ali, his cousin (not even in teens) "I am here at your command, O Apostle of Allah!"

The Prophet addressing Abu Talib asked him to listen to him (his son, 'Ali) and have regard for his words. At this suggestion of the Prophet, the assembly indulged in a hearty laugh and began to chide Abu Talib saying, "Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) has instructed you to obey the commands ofyour son."


One day the Apostle of Allah mounted the Safa hill-top and called out the Makkans. And when they had gathered together around him, he put a question to them: "Do you know me as a truthful person or a liar?"

They said aloud with one voice: "We never heard a foul word from your mouth or one against fact. We have trust in you as 'Truthful and Trustworthy.'

The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) then went on to add: "Here, I am standing at the top and you


 [next] are standing at a lower level. I command both the front and back views. "Well, if I were to tell you that a going of armed robbers is visible to me from a distance and is going to attack Makkah, would you believe me?"

They said in reply. "Of course. We have no ground to falsify a person of your integrity. Moreover, you have had the advantage of your present position commanding both the frontal and back view.

The Prophet then went on to say: "All this was a prelude to what I am to tell you now. Now once again bring to mind that death is going to take you any moment, and you will return to your Lord for reckoning of your deeds. And here as I stand before you, I am clearly in sight of the scene of the Day of Judgement, as you see things around you here in the life of this world."

He thus brought home to them by an example that a prophet could see both this world and the one coming after death.


From now onward he preached Faith openly to one and all without exception. He used to visit every fair, market place, meeting places of the citizens, streets and narrow lanes, sermonizing them on the themes of the Unity of Allah, futility and evils of idol worship, forbade female infanticide, fornication and gambling.

He used to warn them against uncleanliness and befouling of tongue with falsehood and unbecoming language, their clothes with filth and dirt, their hearts with false (debasing) creeds, Allah with faults or short comings and taint, to live upto the pledged word and make good promises made as also to strictly abstain from betrayal of trust, were also emphasized. To make it a firm conviction that the sky, this planet, earth and other celestial bodies, the sun, the moon, the stars and men and every thing big and small are the creation of Allah alone and the entire creation is indebted to Him for existence and sustanance. He alone listens to the call of those who earnestly petition and pray to Him in perfect humility. To restore the sick to health and fulfil the longings of His slaves rests with Allah alone. Without His Will and permission no one can do anything. The angels and Prophets too are just as helpless.


Ukaz, Yu'inah and Zil Mojaz were three great fairs held in Arabia. People from long


[next] distances used to come to them. The Prophet visited them and called the people gathered there for fun, recreation and trade, to the message of Islam, with due stress on unity of Allah and the evils of polytheism. In this way the circle of his missionary work was widening day by day.


Quraysh, the noblest, mightiest, wealthiest and most influential tribe in Arabia, holding charge of most of the offices relating to the Sanctum sanctorum of Ka'bah as well as temporal affairs of the city of Makkah, were regarded superior to others as Brahmins in Hindu in India, both pagans and atheists were proud of their supremacy, enjoying certain privileges exclusively which others were denied to make their own distinction more prominent.

There were other reasons too for their opposition to Islam:

1. They were unable to understand the institution of prophethood. A human being like them coming to preach and teach them religion, with heavenly commission was something they found impossible to swallow.

2. They had no concept of and refused to believe in the retribution of deeds and so the Islamic teachings to the effect that there is going to be accountability in the life after death was a ridiculous idea to them.

3. They were very proud of noble ancestry and the great deeds of their forefathers whom they praised in their poetry to the degree of veneration and worship. How could such puffed up people come down to accept the Islamic equality and fraternity. They, like Brahmins, deemed much below their dignity to put up with this disgraceful and contemptible position.

4. Most of their sub-tribes were antagonistic to Banu Hashim, and to embrace Islam and take it, teaching from and obey an individual of the enemy clan, most abhorrent and degrading to them.

5. They were perfectly satisfied and content with their idolatory, and could not even imagine a creed superior to their own.

6. Given as they were to fornication, gambling, highway robbery, murder, betrayal of trust, profligacy, free from every bond of law, pledge and keeping any number of women


[next] as wives and mistresses, the curbs laid by Islam on all these freedoms were in inimical to their pet habits. So they opposed the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) and resolved to wipe out Islam outright.


The first antagonistic measure adotped was strong persecution of those embracing Islam so that they may be compelled to revert to their former paganism and others may be discouraged. The oppression, tyranny and excesses perpetrated by the Quraysh on the fresh entrants to the Islamic fold, it is difficult to relate it in detail. We shall take up here the distress caused to some of them here.

1. Bilal (R) bin Ribah was an Abyssinian and slave of Umayyah bin Khalaf. When Umayyah learnt of Bilal's conversion to Islam, all sorts of torture were invented:

(a) A rope was tied to his neck and the free and handed over to street urchins and they dragged him in hilly tract of Makkah. The rope left a deep mark on his neck.

(b) He was made to lie on the burning sand of Makkah and a heavy hot stone was placed on his chest so that he could not rise thus causing severe burn injuries to his back and chest.

(c) His hands tied behind his back, he was given a severe beating with sticks.

(d) He was made to sit for hours under the scorching sun,

(e) He was kept without food for days together.

Under all these trying tortures Bilal kept calling Ahad! Ahad! (Allah is one and only without partners). Abu Bakr was very much moved by the anguish caused to a helpless slave and came to his rescue, purchased him from his heartless master, Umayya bin Khalaf and freed Bilal from bondage for Allah's pleasure alone.

2. 'Ammar (R), his father, Yasir (R) and his mother Summayyah (R), had embraced Islam. Abu Jahl tortured them in a variety of ways. One of those days of their trial the Prophet happened to witness this heart-rending torture was much perturbed and pronounced by way of consolation of these oppressed and distressed souls: o ye family of Yasir! Take it easy, patiently persevering in the way of your Lord and Cherisher. Your abode is heaven. Abu Jahl (the damned one) struck poor helpless Sumayya with his spear, penetrating her stomach through her private parts and killing her.


[next] 3. Abu Fakeeh Aflah was miserably dragged on the stony tracks by means of a rope tied to his leg.

4. Khabbab (R) bin Arat was tortured by pulling at the hair of his head and his neck was twisted. He was also forcibly laid down on hot stones and also on live cinders.

5. Ya'eenah, Zuneerah and Umme Ubays were slave girls and were tortured generally by their godless masters. This beastly cruel treamtment of their opponents was not limited to slaves, poor and down-trodden but their own misguided ('apostle') sons and nearest relatives were tortured just as heartlessly, even worse.

6. 'Uthman (R) bin 'Affan's uncle when he came to know about his nephew's Islam, he used to wrap him in a mat of date-palm leaved, bound highly with a rope and smoked him from the opening below to suffocate him.

7. Mus'ab (R) bin 'Umair's mother had turned him out of her house for the 'heinous crime' of Islamising himself.

8. Some of the Prophet's companions were wrapped in raw animal hides securely tied and left lying in the scorching sun. Some others were enclosed in steel armour and thrown on the hot stones. In short such barbarous and unbearable chastisement was meted out to these staunch, sincere believers that the Truth of Islam only put up with them. The followers of the earlier prophets, it is reported, got them arrested and even killed for bribes with false coins from the enemies of Islam. Islam and Jahiliyah (un-Islam) must clash, diametrically opposed mutually as they are.


Most often the paths taken by the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) were strewn with thorns so that on dark nights his feet may be wounded and filth of all sorts was thrown at his doorstep to cause trouble and hazard to health. He, however, was too gentle to react ill humouredly, and remarked a little sarcastically, "O ye sons of Abd Munaf! How nicely you are rendering neighbours' due."

Ibn 'Amr bin -al -'As relates, as eye-witness, "One day the Prophet was praying in Ka'bah when 'Uqaba bin Abi Mu'ait came and, winding his street ripe like, he put it round his neck in the prostrating posture started twining and tightening it like a rope, he


 [next] strangulated him in his attempt to take his life. He braved this dastardly attempt, showing no sign of distress in his prostration. Abu Bakr (R) happened to come on the scene and pushing 'Uqabah away and thus relieving the Prophet (PB. U.H.) he recited the following verse of the Quran to those around:

Will ye slay a man because he says, 'My Lord is Allah?" When he has indeed come to you with clear signs from your Lord? - Al Quran XL: 28

A couple of mischievous persons fell on Abu Bakr and gave him a good beating.

On another occasion when the Prophet was praying in Ka'bah Abu Jahl pointing out that a camel has been slaughtered at such and such place in the town and its offal is still lying there. Some one of you (from the audience) should go and fetch it, to be cast on this person (the Prophet P.B.U.H.) 'Uqabah, complying, got up and brought the offal full of filth and put it on his back when he prostrated. Absorbed as he was in devotion to and concentration on his Lord, he made no sign of uneasiness. The unbelievers gathered there laughed at him heartily.

The young companion Ibn-e-Masood (R) was there but he dared not interfere in the presence of so many evil persons, but (probably on hearing of it) the Prophet's (P.B.U.H.) daughter Fatimah (R) had rushed to Ka'bah and lifting the entrails from her father's back relieved him of this disgracefuly mischief wrought by the enemies. She did rebuke them also though they deserved much more for the distress caused to the Apostle of Allah.

Not content with these occasional individual incidents of causing vexation and harassment to the Messenger of Allah and advancing further they organized the task of Muslim bashing and causing distress, regular persecution committees were set after careful deliberations to be move effective in their unholy war against Truth.


A committee was formed headed by Abu Lahab comprising twenty-five members.

In the deliberations of this committee, among others, there was this question also as the most important item of their strategy, as to how to misinform even disinform the visitors about the Prophet (P.B.U.H.), those who come to see him, so that they may not be enamoured of his greatness sweet nature and enchanting words that charm them immediately.


 [next] Somebody suggested that he should be introduced to the outsiders and utter strangers as a sooth sayer.

Waleed bin Mughirah, an old experienced person retorted:

"I have seen many soothsayers. Just think of their ridiculous attempts at rhyming and mysticising and mystifying words hardly intelligible to anyone, since it is all a farewell show. And on the otherside is the simple and noble rhetoric, going direct to the heart of the listener and having a magical effect. We shall be making damned lying foots of ourselves to the tribes."

Someone else suggested introducing him to the people from distant places as one out of his wits Waleed refuted him saying: What has he to do with witlessness, lunacy or being out of one's wits.

Suggested yet another: Let us tell them he is a poet. Waleed remonstrated: We are well acquainted with poetry and poets and various types of their verses. And Muhammad (P.B.U.H.), as every body can see has not the least resemblance to poetry.

Can we not give his mission the publicity as the business of a magician, a sorcerer?

Waleed repudiating the suggestion said: The cleanliness, fineness and refinement of Muhammad's life have no trace in the life and dirty habits of the sorcerers. Their abominable faces, speak volumes about their reprehensible mode of life.

At this stage when there was nothing left to suggest, the audience asked him to himself suggest something reasonable.

Waleed brought the discussion to an end saying: "Truth to tell Muhammad's words have a sweetness of their own. His talk is most tasteful and alluring, which is capable of winning over the addressee, thus making him oblivious to others, creating chasms between a father and his son, real brothers and husband and wife. So we must be on our guard in this behalf and avoid coming in contact with him.

So the above mentioned committee unanimously passed the following resolution:

"Mohammad (P.B.U.H.) should be vexed in every possible manner. He should be mocked in every conversation on any issue, and should be harassed through Buffoonary and distress. Those having faith in him as a true apostle of Allah should be victimized


 [next] and tortured to cure them of their love of this new creed antonizing our ancestral religion.


When the persecution of Muslims by the pagans crossed all limits making life unbearable for them, the Apostle of Allah permitted them to migrate to Abyssinia. Thus permitted a small caravan of 12 men and 4 women left their houses under cover of the night, and boarding a ship at Shoaibah port of Red sea set sail for Abyssinia.

'Uthman (R) bin 'Affan was the leader of this small caravan. His wife Ruqayyah (R) the daughter of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) had accompanied him. The Prophet (P.B. U.H.) had remarked about the unique distinction of 'Uthman saying: "After Lot and Ibrahim (P.B.U.H.), this is the first pair to migrate in the way of Allah." In the wake of this first small caravan, another much larger comprising 83 men and 18 women started from Makkah for Abyssinia in quest of peace and safety of their Faith. The Prophet's cousin Ja'far 'Tayyar' (the winged companion) was also among them. The pagan Quraysh on learning about migration gave them a hot chase upto the sea shore, but failed to detain them since the caravan had already boarded the ship sailing for Abyssinia.

A Christian king ruled over Abyssinia. The representatives of the pagan Quraysh followed the Muslim migrants to Abyssinia with presents for the ruler and managed to find a access to him in his court. They requested him for the extradition of their country men who had entered Abyssinia as emigrants. They would like to take them back to their homeland. The Muslim party was called to the court and questioned about the cause of their migration. Prophet's (P.B.U.H.) cousin, Ja'far Tayyar as the representative of the migrant body delivered the following speech:

O thou king (your Majesty)! We had been victims of Jahiliyah (ignorance and Un-Islam), worshipping idols, thoroughly immersed in filth (physical and spiritual), eating carrion and talked nonsense (foul tongues). There was hardly any trace of humanity and hospitality in us. There was no regard for the neighbour and no respect for any law in our lives. Under these deplorable conditions Allah raised a prophet amongst us, with whom we were, as regards his ancestIy, veracity and integrity, piety and cleanliness, well conversant. He called us to the creed of the unity of Allah and gave us to understand that no partners were to be associated with that One and Only deity. He forbade us polytheism and idolatory. He bade us to always speak the truth, fulfil our


[next] pledges, to keep away from the pollution of sin and keep out of the path of evils. He ordered us to offer prayers, pay sadqah (Zakat or the share of the less fortunate in our bounties conferred on us by Allah and fast during the month of Ramadhan. Our community is at variance with us and persecuted us. They tormented us as much as they could to turn us away from the worship of the only God without any partner and revert to the worship of stone idols and wooden gods of the days of Jahiliyah (ignorance and UnIslam). We have suffered a lot at their hands in our own land of birth and in a state of helplessness have come to your kingdom seeking asylum under your generous rule."

After listening to this speech, the king asked the speaker to let him listen also some portion of the Quran, and Ja'far Tayyar (R) recited a portion of Surah Maryam (Q. XIX) where the line position of ' Isa ibn Maryam (Jesus son of Mary not son of God according to the Christian belief) which moved him (the king) to tears and he said, "Mohammad (P.B.U.H.) is celtainly the apostle ofAllah who had been mentioned by Jesus Christ and I thank Allah that I happen to be his contemporary." And after this much of clarification of the real situation with respect to the request for extradition of the Muslims, the party of the unbelievers from Makkah was driven out from the court. Failing in their mission of extradition of Muslims from Abyssinia, they hit upon another plan. "Let us try to tempt Mohammad (with promises of material gains of wealth and honour and threatening him at the same time with dire consequences (of loss of life and end of his mission). Either of them may succeed.

As the first move of their agreed plan, their wealthiest and most prominent tribal chief of Makkah, ‘Utbah, came to the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) and said:

My nephew, Muhammad! If through this mission of yours you are after amassing wealth, we can manage it by giving you enough to make you the richest person in Makkah. And in case you are aspiring in a position of honour we can make you our chief, even ruler of this region or Arabian Peninsula which can meet your ambition of becoming a ruler. We are ready to meet any demand from you if only you give up your present behaviour (of condemnation of our ancestral ways). And if it is all due to some mental aberration we are prepared to get you treated and cured of this malaise.

The Prophet said in reply: "There is not an idea of truth in what you have said about me. I have no amibitions to wealth, honour or rule. And I am perfectly sound in mind. The reality about me and my position will be revealed to you by the following Quranic verses:


[next] Ha-Mim-: A revelation from the most Gracious, Most Merciful: -A book where of the verses are explained in detail: -A Quran, in Arabic, for people who understand: -giving Good news and admonition. Yet most of them turn away, and so they hear not. They say: "Our hearts are under veils (concealed) from that to which thou dost invite us, and in our ears is a deafness and between us and thee there is a screen: so do thou (what thou wilt); for us we shall do (what we will)." Say thou: "I am a man like you: it is revealed to me by inspiration, that your God is One God: so take the straight path unto Him and ask for His forgiveness. And woe to those who join gods with Allah; those who pay not Zakat and who even deny the Hereafter. For those who believe and work deeds of righteousness is a reward that will never fail. Say: Is it that ye deny Him Who created the earth in two Days? - Al Quran XLI: 1-8

After listening these verses recited by the Prophet, 'Utbah appeared to have been fascinated. And absorbed in contemplation while listening attentively with head bent backwards. After sometime he left quietly:

Returning to the Quraysh waiting eagerly for him, enquired of him the result of the talk. He said in reply, 'O ye my brethren, Quraysh! I have been listening to a discourse which is neither sooth saying, nor poetry, nor magic or incantation; listen to me and do as I tell you. Leave Mohammad alone, having nothing to do with him. On learning this unexpectedly from him they said: "Look here! 'Utbah too has been charmed by the magic of Muhammad(P.B.U.H.)". When their first plan of tempting and winning over their adversary failed. The next step was the meeting of all the tribal chiefs together with the Prophet's loving uncle and his guardian of early life, Abu Talib. They put up their case against their 'enemy' thus:

We have great regard for you, your nephew is engaged in vilification of our gods. Our idols worshipped by our ancestors which is beyond the limits of toleration for us. Counsel him to hold his tongue in this regard or else. We will put him out of our way, and you alone can do us no harm.

Noticing the general opinion against his dear nephew, he was filled with love and anxiety for him. So he called him and gave him to understand that he should refrain from finding faults with idolatory, or else he (Abu Talib) too would be unable to support him against the community.

The Prophet said to him in response to his warnings: "Dear uncle! Even if they were to put the sun on my right hand and the moon on my left, I will not abandon my job, not


 [next] omiting a word from the divine command. Caring not a while for my life if I lose it in this bargain."

After this second failure, the Quraysh of Makkah put their heads together once again and decided upon calling Muhammad before a representative assembly of the community and to remonstrate and make clear to him the gravity of the situation. And accordingly they invited him to appear before the assembly of the tribal chiefs at Ka'bah.

The Prophet was well pleased with this appointment since he was thirsting for their softening, held high hopes of their submission to his call to the Islamic Faith. On his arrival they began the conversation like this:

"O Muhammad! We have called you here for a talk with you. By God! We do not know of anyone who tormented his community more than you. There is no trouble or evil that has not confronted us only because of you. Now tell us clearly what is that you want to gain through this campaign against us? If you want to earn wealth through this mission of yours, we can do it for you so that you can boast of your superiority in wealth. If you are after honour and dignity, we are ready to make you our leader. And in case you aspire to rule, we agree to make you our ruler, King of Arabia. And lastly, if it is some spirit, a genie that has got the better of you, we can spend on you spiritual (magical) so that you may be restored to your normal health or else may be declared excusable."

The Apostle of Allah in response addressed them thus:

"Whatever you have said does not at all accord with position (as a prophet commissioned by Allah for the guidance of mankind). With the teachings that have come to me, is neither meant for amassing wealth nor to attain a position of honour, nor coming in power to rule over a territory. Allah has sent me as His messenger, revealed a Book of Guidance and felicity here and Hereafter. He has made me His agent to give you glad tidings and warning. I have delivered the message of your Lord to you, giving you a clear understanding of your position. If you accept my teachings, it will be an asset for you in this world and the next. And in case you reject them. I shall wait for Allah's decision in this behalf."

The Quraysh said to him: 'Very well, Muhammad! If you do not agree to our proposals, there is another problem which we would like to be solved. You know it well enough that we do existence at the verge of poverty even below that, at starvation level. There is scarcity of water and our livelihood is problematic. Can you pray to your Lord to remove


 [next] these hills from our midst so that our town may have vast open stretch of land. Also, He should provide for us canals of water as in Syria and Iraq. He sould as well, resurrect our ancestors, Qusay bin Kallab must be among them. For, he was our great leader. Our national hero, who was a truthful person. We shall seek his opinion of you. If he takes you at your word as a true messenger of God, and you have also met our earlier demands, we shall also acknowledge the truth of your claim to prophethood.

The apostle of Allah said in reply to their (non sensical) demands: “I have not been sent as a prophet for this purpose. I have come to you with teachings of Truth and I have conveyed them to you. It is now upto you to accept and prosper or reject and be damned.

The Quraysh, bent as they were on vexation, went further, ‘Alright, if you can do nothing for us, request God for favours to yourself:

1. He (Allah) should appoint an angel to accompany you declaring that this person (Muhammad) is truthful and also stop us from persecuting you.

2. Well, you should also request Him that beautiful gardens should come into existence for you with lofty mansions around and a vast treasure of silver and gold be provided for you, which you also need badly. So far you are given to seek your sustenance with personal effort and visit the market to meet your needs. Only thus armed with material advantage, you can be regarded as a man of honor and prestige, and also recognize you as the apostle of Allah.

The Prophet said: "I will never come down to do what you propose, requesting Allah for all that. And I have not been raised for such lowly aims in life. Allah has sent me to you as a bearer of glad tidings and a warner. If you are your own well-wisher and accept my message, it will be beneficial in both the worlds, otherwise I shall patiently wait for Allah's decree in relation to you. "

"Well, then do one thing," said they, make a piece of the sky come down upon his, since you maintain that Allah, if He is so pleased can do it. So until you have performed this miracle we will not believe (in the Islamic Faith). The apostle of Allah replied: "It lies in Allah's power alone. If He wants He may do it."

The Qurash said: " Tell us, O Muhammad! Why did your God not inform you that we were going to call you to put much and much questions to you and demand such and


 [next] such miracles from you, these are the answers to our questions and God had the intention of doing such and such things?

Since your God did nothing like that, we take it for granted that what we have come to know is a fact that there is a person, named Rahman, who teaches you all that you put up as revelation from God. We shall never believe in Rahman. Look here, Mohammad! This day we have put up all our objections to your message of Islam (and hence our opposition to you. And not we also stake firmly, on oath, that we shall never allow you to propagate this new tangled creed of yours, and shall persevere with our stand until we perish in this struggle or you are gone.

Things had come to this stage in their talk when one of the Quraysh staked: "We worship the angels, whom we take as daughters of God." Another added: "0 Mohammad! We shall not believe in what you say until and unless God and His angels come down here before us."

On hearing this last blasphemous out burst of the pagans, he got up and so did Abdullah bin Abu Umayyah bin Mughirah, the Prophet's cousin, born of 'Ahkah daughter of Abd-al-Muttalib. He said the Prophet: "Mohammad! Listen to me. Your community made certain requests to you which you rejected out right. Then they asked you to show signs of self-elevation as proof of your esteem, but that too you refused. Then they sought your help in inviting God's wrath on themselves with which you have been threatening them but you were not positive about that either. So I shall never believe in your prophethood even if you ascend to the heights of the firmament and come down with four angels in attendance, confirming your statements and claims (about the unknown).

Even after this confrontation and their rejection of Faith, the Prophet kept reminding them, pointing out the fact that their well-being depended on the acceptance of his teachings. The discreet among them that came to believe and lived up to the demands of the Faith were gifted by Allah with much higher perception and cognition of what they (the un-believers) had asked for and much greater benefits occured to them.

At this juncture we are reminded of the questions put to 'Isa (P.B.U.H.) Christ by Satan and his (Christ's) refusal to oblige him. The fact is that the chosen apostles of Allah have invariably put forth their teachings in face of un-belief and not miracles to silence or convince them . For in that case belief in the unknown loses its quality. 'Seeing is believing' is not the measure of sincere heartfelt recognition of Truth. Conviction through inner light has the real worth. Miracles as the workings of Allah at their hands


[next] to meet some emergency beyond human power. (The case of Moses (P.B.U.H.) and Pharaoh (Fir'aun) in Egypt of the age of sorcery and Black Magic, is one of rare exception when humanity had not come of age yet).


In the sick year of his being raised as a Prophet, the apostle of Allah was sitting on the Safa hill in close vicinity of Ka'bah, when Abu Jahl got there and injured him first with his foul tongue and in the absence of any reaction, hit him with a stone causing head injury and bleeding. His uncle, Hamza, who had not yet accepted Islam, in his zeal of love of kinderd, he rushed to Abu Jahl and hit him so violently with a bow on the head, thus causing serious injury. Then he went to the Prophet and told him that he had avenged him. The Prophet said in reply that with such incidents he is not pleased. However, his (uncle Hamza's) embracing Islam would bring him real pleasure. Hamzah entered the fold of Islam then and there.


Three days after Hamza (R), 'Umar bin Khattab embraced Islam. He was one of the most valiant men among the Quraysh and peformed ambassadorial service to the Makkans. One day he came out fully armed with the evil intent of murdering the Prophet. On the way he learnt from an acquaintance that his own sister and her husband both have become Muslims. He went to his sister's house, gave a good beating to both of them. 'Umar was however moved when he saw her sister bleeding, but taking it easy without reaction. He had heard recital of Quran when he entered, and desired to read it himself A third person, a companion of the Prophet who had gone into hiding out of fear of'Umar now came out and recited the first Ruku' of Surah Ta-ha (Q.XX) to him which brought tears to his eyes. He went straight to Dar-Arqam, where the Prophet used some time with his companions, Hamzah among them, and embraced Islam and a loud cry of Allah-u-Akbar (Allah is the Greatest), was heard the first time on this occasion, as a mark of joy and thanks giving to Allah for 'Umar's Islam. One who had come

out, sword in hand, to murder, became a devoted and most faithful ally and Mujahid (a crusader) of Islam of the highest rank. He received a title of great distinction Al-Faruq' from the Prophet. He deserved it, distinguishing full well Islam from Jahiliyah and Truth from Falsehood.

Upto this time the Believers went to a gorge in the hills of Makkah for prayers or prayed


 [next] in the privacy of their houses. But now they boldly prayed in Ka'bah. The unbelievers were all the more infuriated and tonnented Muslims with greater vengeance and their treatment with the Prophet also was one of arrogance and insolence.


When the unbelieving Quraish found the Prophet firm on his stand in relation in his teachings of persecution of the worst type, and busy with his programme with great courage and untiring effort. In the month of Muharram of the 7th year of the era of Prophet's raising, gave their decision against the believers that although Banu Hashim the Prophet's (P.B.U.H.) tribe has not accepted Islam, fully supports him on all occasions when he is in distress. Let us boycott them totally, strictly restricting their movements in the town and refuse to sell anything to them. A contract to this effect was made and in writing was kept in Ka'bah.

The Prophet with his tribe per force confined themselves in a mountain gorge known as Sh'ab-e-Abi Talib. The Quraysh put a strict ban on the sale of grains and other articles of food to the besieged. The loud crying of Banu Hashim's hungry children could be heard outside.

For three long years of distress and agony in this prison passed somehow and the believers too were passing their days in the getting confirment of their homes. During the Haij season when quarrels and fighting even against deadly enemies was strictly prohibited, the . Prophet (P.B.U.H.) used to come out of the gorge and delivered the divine message to the Makkans and outside visitors (pilgrims). Abu Lahab,'the Prophet's (P.B.U.H.) uncle used to follow him (Prophet (P.B.U.H.») wherever he went for preaching, loudly warning the people against listening to him (this insane preacher as he used to call him). Whoever listens to him (pays heed to him and acts accordingly) will crack himself. For three years the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) put up patiently persevering with this hardship. When their contract preserved in Ka'bah became moth-eaten and under pressure from some of their own sensible prominent men, they lifted the ban, the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) came out of the gorge, and most ordantly resumed the work so long interrupted.

One day when he entered the sacred mosque (Ka'bah), he found some pagan elite sitting there. Abu Jahl cast a glance at him and said in a mocking tone: "Look, you Abd Munaf! Your prophet has come back."


 [next] 'Uqabah bin Rabi'ah blurted out: "We have no objection. Anyone of us may call himself an apostle of Allah or pose as an angel. On hearing these taunting remarks turned round and facing them, first he said to 'Uqabah: "Uqabah! you never had the grace and good sense to stand by the Messenger of Allah and, His Prophet. You have always insisted on your own (crooked) opinion."

Then he said to Abu jahl: Time is fast approaching when you will weep more than you have been laughing."

The addressing the Quraish in general he pronounced: "The moment is fast approaching when you with ultimately enter the Faith that you reject now."

Every word of this prediction came true as the reader shall find in the coming pages of this book.


In the tenth year of the Prophet's (P.B.U.H.) raising, his uncle and father of 'Ali (R) died. He had brought up and imparted instruction and training (not education) from an early age (of 8 years). And from the time he started his missionary work, Abu Talib had been standing by him and strongly supporting him in the hour of his need (opposition by the Quraysh. So the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) was much grieved by this sad event of his passing away. He did his best to persuade him just to pronounce in his last moment, but the satans gathered around him dissuaded him, and appealing to his pride of ancestry reminded him repeatedly to stick to Abdul Muttalib's creed opting for which he breathed his last. It grieved the Prophet very much, though he was consoled by Allah in the Quran that he could not guide anyone he liked. It is Allah's decree that decides it.


Three days after Abu Talib the loving consort of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.), Khadijah-al-Kubra (R) expired. This pious lady had devoted herself to the service and pleasure of her husband, the apostJe of Allah and spent all her wealth in the way of Allah to promote the cause of His Message. She was among those few persons who embraced Islam at the earliest. The archangel Gabriel (Jibril) had once conveyed to her, through the Prophet, the salam or mess'age of peace from Allah Himself. She was not only the most loving wife but gave birth to most of his children. So the grief in the event of her sad demise can be well-imagined. The two great supporters Abu Talib and


 [next] Khadijah had been taken away from him in quick succession.

Thus left alone, the Prophet was made the target of added of persecution by the Quraysh. Once some devil's disciple from Quraysh, flung mud to the head of the Prophet and he entered the house with his head soiled, when his daughter rushed to wash and clean it. She wept as she washed. The Prophet consoled her saying: "My dear child, don't weep: Allah Himself will protect your father. "


As stated above, the two great sympathisers and supporters of the Prophet, Abu Talib and Khadijah-alKubra had departed leaving him alone, yet he was not discouraged due to his reposing trust in Allah entirely and started his mission of Islamization with greater enthusiasm than before.

So 'soon after these incidents he left makkah for other places outside. Zaid bin Harithah accompanied him on this mission. He conveyed his message to all the tribes between Makkah and Ta'if. On this mission of the unity of Allah he covered this distance on foot. Just imagine, he had not the means to provide him even a mule or a donkey to ride.' Banu Thaqeef held sway over Ta'if. They were a proud lot living as they were in a fertile tract in the desert land of Arabia, and enjoyed its rich produce particularly fruits of all sorts, something unimaginable in the sandy desert and parched hills of Makkah as against fine cold climate of Ta'if. Abd Yaleel, Mas'ood and Habib, all the three brothers were their chiefs. The Prophet, to begin with, visited these chiefs and invited them to the Islamic Faith. One of them blurted out: 'I would get my beard shaved in front of Ka'bah if Allah made you His apostle." The second brother added : "Did Allah not get hold of anyone other than you who cannot afford an animal to ride. If at all he wanted to make an apostle he could have selected for this job some, ruler or a chief."

The third said: I will not speak to thee at all. For, if thou art the apostle of Allah as thou claims, it would be dangerous to refute thy words (thy claim and message). And in case thou art putting a false claim involving Allah, it would be below my dignity to speak to such a person."

The apostle of Allah (P.B.U.H.) said to them: Now, all I want from you is this that you keep your ideas expressed here to yourselves lest these nations may become the cause of misguidance of others."


[next] The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) then started preaching to the generality of people. But these chiefs had instigated their slaves and street urchins to throw stones at him while addressing people. And they wounded the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) and bled him so much that his shoes were filled with blood and could be removed with great difficulty at the time of ablutions. On one occasion these street kids piled so much abuse, clapped and made such loud noise that distracted the Prophet and he was compelled to take shelter in the compound of a house. It belonged to 'Utbah and Shaibah the sons of Rabi'ah. They saw the Prophet in this condition and out of pity for a person in that condition instructed their slave, Addas, to take some grapes on a platter to this distressed person before them. The slave complied, placing the plate full of grapes before the Prophet, who taking it in his hand started taking grapes involving the name of Allah before putting them in his mouth.

Addas looked at the Prophet in amazement saying that he had uttered words before eating which the people: in that country were not given to say.

The Prophet asked him: "Where do you belong and what is your religious creed?"

Addas said in reply: I am a christian and hail from Nineveh."

The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) further questioned him: "Do you come from the country where Yunus bin Matta (Jonah son of Matta) lived?" Addas in tum asked him: "Do you know who was Yunus bin Matta and what was he?

The Prophet replied: "He was my brother, he was a prophet and so am I (prophet)."

On hearing these words Addas bowed down, kissing the Prophet's (P.B.U.H.) head, hands and feet.

'Uqabah bin Shaibah saw his slave Addas, doing homage to the Prophet, from a distance and said to each other:

"The slave is lost to us. He is no more ours." When Addas returned to his masters, they rebuked him saying: "Thou wretched one! What befell thee that made thee kiss the hands and feet of that person"

Addas told them respectfully that there was no one on this earth superior to that man. He told me something that only a prophet could tell."


[next] They warned him in a very severe tone: "Beware! Do not abandon the ancestral faith, for thine own is better than his."

And it was here on one occasion during the course of sermons for people at large, the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) was so badly injured that he fell unconcious and Zaid had to lift him on his back, taking him out of the inhabited area. He was restored to consciousness by sprinkling water over his head and face.

In spite of the fact that he had not succeeded in the Islamization of a single person in his entire tedious tour and severe physical injuries over and above the mental distress due to extremely harsh, most ill-mannered barbaric behaviour of Banu Thaqif, the common man and the elite alike, he was not morose and heart-broken. Rather his pure and noble heart was full of the Grandeur and love of His servants he looked to Allah alone for Mercy, caring little for them, if it was not His wrath, and seeking asylum with Him, More Merciful than all others showing mercy.

While returning from this most perilous journey from Ta'if he had also said: "Why should I curse them? What, if they do not believe. I have strong hopes that their progeny will certainly come to believe in the unity of Allah, the One and Only without partners.


Back in Makkah, the Prophet used to go to the habitations of various tribes or went out of the town and presented the message of Islam to the casual way farers. It was during this campaign that He visited Banu Kaida tribe. A person, Malih by name, was their tribal chief. He also went to Banu Abdullah tribe and said to them that their ancestor was Abdullah (the slave of Allah), so why do they not all become slaves of Allah. Visiting Banu Hanifah tribe he experienced the worst type of rejection he had met. Then he went to Banu 'Amir bin Sa'sa'ah. Their chief Buherah bin Faras, on hearing his message asked him: "Suppose we accept your message and you get the upper hand, do you promise to make me your successor?" The Prophet said to him: All that is in the hands of Allah. He will make whom He chooses as my successor. The chief blurted out: Well said! In the hour of your need it is we who are called to stand by you. And when you succeed in your plan. Some one else may derive all the benefits (of his elevated position)! Be gone! We have nothing to do with your business. In this entourage among the tribes, Abu Bakr Siddiq (R) was in attendance on him.



During this period Suwaid bin Samit came his way. His community called him 'Kamil' (the perfect). The Prophet gave him the message of Islam. He said, "Perhaps you have the same (to say) that I (already) have with me. The Prophet enquired: "What have you?" He said: "It is the Wisdom of Luqman." The Prophet asked him to come out with it. He recited some of his fine lyrics. The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) said to him: "This is quite good. But I have the Quran which is far superior to it and is guidance and light." Then the Prophet recited portions from the Quran and he embraced Islam instantly. When he returned to Yathrib, the Khazrajites killed him.


About this time Abu-al-Haishar Anas bin Rafi' came to Makkah. Some young men from Bani Abd-al-Ashhal had also come with them. Ayas bin Mu'az was one of them. They had come for a contract on behalf of their people, Khazrajites, with the Quraysh. The Prophet came to them and said:

I have with me something which will benefit one and all. Would you like to listen to me? They enquired: What is that? He said: "I am an apostle of Allah and have been raised for humanity. I invite the servants of Allah that they should worship Allah alone and join no partners with Him. He has revealed a Book to me." Then he elucidated the Islamic principles to them and recited a portion of the Quran also. Ayas bin Mu'az who was a young man, immediately, on listening the Quran, said to his companions: 0 my community! By Allah! This is much better for you than the purpose that brought you here."

Anas bin Rafi' picked up a handful of pebbles and threw them in the face of Ayas, saying: "Hold your tongue. We did not come here for this purpose." The Prophet left them. This is an incident relating to the time before the (deadly) war of Bu'ath fought between Aus and Khazraj tribes of Yathrib. Ayas died sometime after his return to Yathrib. It is reported that at the time of his death his tongue was busy with the remembrance of Allah-His Glorification. Praise, Exultation, and Magnification. The seed of Islam had taken root in his heart from the sermon of the Prophet and had blossomed at the time of his death.

And it was also in the same period that Zamad Azdi came to Makkah, a citizen of Yemen and a well known magician of Arabia. When he was told that Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) is


[next] under the influence of a Genie, he said to the Quraish that he could cure him of this malaise with his charms. He came to the Prophet and said to him: "Mohammad! Let O Muhammad, extend your hand that I may enter Bai'ah with you on Islam.


It was 27th Rajab of the 10th year after his being raised to Prophethood that the apostle of Allah ascended the unknown heights in the company of Jibril and Allah provided an occasion for him to see the hidden realities of the heavens and the earth.

In the first stage of this journey he was taken to the Bait-al-Maqdis (in Jerusalem) from Masjid-ul-Haram (Ka'bah) and there led the congregational prayer of all the prophets. Then he was taken to heavens and meeting the prophets in their own particular abodes, attained the heights of the Sidrah-al-Muntahe and Bait-e-Ma'moor from where he proceeded alone to heights to which no one had ever had access, not even the Arch angel Jibril, upto the limit of Brilliance of Anwar (Lights) whereof is bearable for mortals, receiving many revelations direct (without the normal intermediacy of the Arch angel Jibril). This was a unique honour of nearness not usually afforded.

Among other experiences, the Prophet, during ascension, was offered two cups of fluids. One of milk and the other full of wine. He opted for milk and Jibril told him that he had opted for the real (unsullied) nature. If he had gone for the other container (of wine) his ummah would have gone awry. It is evident from this symbolic demonstration that the Prophet was destined to bring together the Muslim Ummah to true nature of man. Milk represents pure (unsullied) nature while wine indicated the indiscriminate pursuit of lusts.

There is almost consensus on it that in the beginning of the Prophet's mission only Fajr and 'Asr prayers become obligatory. And it was only on the occasion of his ascension that prayers five times a day were made binding on the Muslim Ummah, with the benefit of fifty in the matter of reward in the Hereafter. It was under the nature and prudent advice of Moses (P.B.U.H.) that encouraged the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) to plead with Allah to make it easy for his Ummah and bring fifty prayers to five.


And it was again about this time that Tufail bin 'Amr Dausi came to Makkah. He was the chief of the Daus tribe ruling in a region in close vicinity of Yemen. Tufail was a poet and


 [next] an intellectual. The Makkans went all the way out of Makkah to receive him and made arrangements for his stay in Makkah on a grand scale. Tufail is reported to have said himself: "I was also told by the Makkans that this person who is one of us, keep your distance from him, for he is a sorcerer and through his sorcery he disrupts close relationships-between father and son, husband and wife and real brothers. Our commuruty is vexed and our affair in a state of disarray. We do not want that your community too may fall a prey to such a mishap. We strongly advise you to abstain from seeing him, listening to or speaking to him.

"So cleverly they infused all that nonsensical stuff in me that I was careful to plug my ears with cotton when going to Ka'bah." says, Tufail bin 'Amr Dausi. One day I happened to go to Ka'bah early in the morning. The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) was praying. Since it was the Will of Allah that I should hear him, I heard him reciting a unique type of 'Kalam' (words). It was at this moment that I reproached myself for all that extra care to keep out of his way in spite of the fact that I was a poet, a learned person and discreet enough to know good from evil. What then holds me back from listening to what he says? The option of accepting good things and rejecting evil was mine. So with the intention of meeting and speaking to him I waited for him to end his prayer. When he was returning home I followed him. And when with him at his house I related to him everything about my coming to Makkah, beguiling of Makkans, plugging my ears to keep out his voice and of hearing his strange marvellous recital of this morning, requesting him to let me hear something (of his message). The Prophet recited a portion of the Quran. By Allah! I had never heard anything like that before. Words marvellous enough and inviting to such piety and justice.

In short, Tufail Dausi embraced Islam itnmediately. The person who was held in such esteem as their Lord and patron by the Makkans had become the humble servant of Allah and submissive follower of the apostle of Allah on hearing a few words from him.


Abu Zarr (R) while in his own town, Yathrib, was attracted by some rumours about the Prophet (P.B.U.H). He asked his brother to go to Makkah and see this man.

Anees, his brother, was a well known poet, eloquent in speech. Coming to Makkah, met the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) and on returning home informed Abu Zarr (R) that he found Muhammad a nice person who enjoins good and forbids evil.


 [next] On hearing this brief inadequate report remarked: "That much is not enough to satisfy me." and himself set out for Makkah on foot. He had no information about the distinguishing features of the Prophet's personality and did not like to enquire from anybody else either.

Subsisting on zamzam water he stayed in Ka'bah itself. 'Ali Murtaza (R) happened to come to Ka'bah while Abu Zarr was staying there and standing by him threw a casual remark, "Appears to be a stranger?" Abu Zarr said in reply: "Yes, you are right." 'Ali (R) invited him to his own house and Abu Zarr accepting his hospitality accompanied him. But neither the host made any enquiry about the purpose of his visit, nor Abu Zarr (R) himself disclosed his mission during his stay there for the night. Next morning, he returned to his temporary sojourn, Ka'bah He was anxious to seek the Prophet (P.B.U.H) but was careful not to put any question to anybody in this behalf

'Ali (R) came to him once again at Ka'bah and remarked, "Perhaps you have not succeeded finding your destination?" Abu Zarr affirmed his suspicion. Once again 'Ali (R) took him home, and at this stage enquired about his identity as also the purpose of his visit to Makkah. Abu Zarr said in reply, "Ifyou promise to keep it to yourself, I can tell you." 'Ali (R) assented promisinng secrecy. Abu Zarr (R) began, " I came to know that there is a person in this town who claims to be a prophet. I sent my brother here for enquiries and confirmation, but the information furnished by him failed to satisfy me. That brings me here."

'Ali (R) replied that his arrival there was a most auspicious and his chance meeting with him ('Ali (R)) appeared to be a good augury. He was going to him (the Prophet (PB.u.H.) right then and would try to find out if an immediate meeting was possible.

'Ali (R) took him in and after introduction Abu Zarr (R) requested the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) to enlighten him about the nature of the new faith, and was briefly introduced to Islam in principle. And Abu Zarr made no delay in entering the fold of Islam.

The Prophet, however, instructed him: "Abu Zarr, keep the event to yourself for such time as is appropriate for publicising it. Get back home for the present. You are welcome here when you hear of our open declaration of our mission and its activities."

Abu Zarr was, however bursting with the passion to declare the truth and said in a determined tone. "By Allah! I shall return home only after I have declared my embracing


 [next] the Faith of Peace." Taking leave of the Prophet (P.B.u.H.) he came to Ka'bah and loudly declared his change of faith conversion to Islam. The gathering of Quraysh on hearing his loud recitation of the Kalimah, the epitome of Islam, at once fell upon him, shouting, "Give him a good thrashing, teaching this new enthusiast a lesson and they were in real earnest bent on killing him. Abbas (R) appeared on the scene at this juncture. He bowed down to have a close look at the victim of mob's wrath and warned them in time, saying, "Look here! He is a member of Ghifar tribe to whom you regularly turn for trade and also get your date fruit from them." The fiurious mob saw reason and desisted. Next day he once again repeated the loud declaration of his Islam, was beaten by the pagan Quraysh and redeemed by Abbas once again. After this bold attempt at open declaration of Truth, he returned home.


Once, during the Hajj season of the 11th year of the raising of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) that at 'Uqabah, a few miles from Makkah, in the darkness of the night the Prophet (P.B. U.H.) heard people talking together. Guided by the sound the apostle of Allah approached them. There were six of them, all hailing from Yathrib (latter came to be called Madinah-al-Nabi or simply Madinah). To this small company he expounded the Grandeur and Sublimity of Allah. He made their loved of Allah fervid, rousing at the same time their disgust for the idols and idolatry. Instructing them in piety and purity and forbidding sins and evil deeds. With them mentioning the arrival of an apostle of Allah. Prompted by the idea of priority in belief in this promised messiah, they embraced Islam at once and when they returned home became true heralds of the True Faith. They proclaimed the glad tidings of the arrival of that promised messiah for whom the entire humanity was waiting, to every one they came across or could easily reach. Our ears are familiar with his words, our eyes saw him, and he has so introduced us to that Eternal God which has rendered life and death immaterial to us.


The result of the glad tidings borne by these people was that in every family of Madinah the Prophet came for mention, and the next year, the twelveth of the Prophet's raising, 12 persons from Yathrib presented themselves in Makkah and were gifted with the wealth of Belief in Islam due to the effort of the apostle of Allah.

The terms for the Bai'ah or pledge of loyalty of these people with the Prophet was on the following terms:


[next] 1. We shall worship the One and Only God, Allah and will not give partners to Him.

2. We shall abstain totally from theft and fornication.

3. We shall not kill our (female) offspring.

4. We shall not calumniate (bring false accusation against) anybody nor shall we slander.

5; We shall obey the Prophet in all good things.


When these people from Yathrib were returning home, the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) sent Mus'ab bin 'Umair with them for their education and training. Mus'ah bin 'Umair was the Scion of a wealthy family. When riding out he had slaves in attendance and never put on a dress worthless than two hundred dirhams. But when due to the blessings of Islam he attained spiritual richness, he abandoned for good these physical trappings and exhibition of wealth. During the days when he was proclaiming the True Faith and conveying the message of Islam to Madinites, he was clad only in a small blanket held together in front with thorns.


Mus'ab bin 'Umair (R) on his arrival in Madinah became the guest of As'ad bin Dararah (R). And the Medinites, called him AI-Qura (the teacher). One day Mus'ab, Asa'd and some other Muslims came together at Bi'r Maraq (the well of Maraq) to think over and devise means to convey Islam to Bani Abd-al-Ashhal and Bani Zafar.

Sa'd bin Mu'az and Usaid bin Huzair were the chiefs of these two clans, and had not yet embraced Islam. They also learnt about the plan and Sa'd bin Mu'az said to Usaid:

"How negligent you have been all this time. Just see how these two persons, coming and staying in our houses have been making fools of our simple folk. Go and tell them snappishly never to come again towards our habitations. I would have done it myself but because of As'ad being my maternal cousin.

Usaid bin Hudair started armed, As'ad said to Mus'ab; "Look here! A tribal chief is coming this way. May Allah grant it that he accepts your offer. "


 [next] Mus'ab told him: If he comes and sits here a while, I shall certainly speak to him. While they were talking, Usaid came up to them and started flinging dirty abuse at them without taking his seat. He also pointed out to them that they had come to entice our simple minded men.


Mus'ab said to him: How I wish you had taken your seat and listened to me: you can do it now and if it pleases you, have the goodness to accept it, or else reject it. Usaid relented saying: "Let it be as you say, I have no objection." Mus'ab expounded the nature of Islam and then recited portions of the Quran. Usaid listened quietly. At last he said: "Tell me what is your procedure of allowing entry to your Faith? Mus'ab (R) said in reply: "We ask him to take bath and put on clean clothes. And then we make him recite the Kalimah (the epitome of Islam) helping him with two rak'ats of prayer also. "

Usaid got up, washed his clothes, took bath and pronounced the Kalimah (as evidence of his belief in Allah, His Apostle and the Last Day). Then he offered two rak'ats of supererogatory prayer. And departing he said to Mus'ab (R): "There is another person I have left behind, I shall send him to you. If he listens to you and follows also, there will be no more opposition to you in this work."

And on the other side S'ad bin Mu'az had been waiting for his (Usaid's) return and observing his face at some distance said to himself: "This is not the face that I saw before he left me." When Usaid came and sat down, Mu'az asked him: "What happened in your encounter?" Usaid replied that he had admonished then and they had promised not to go against our advice. But a totally different accident marred the whole situation. Banu Harithah came up and were bent on killing As'ad bin Dararah since he happened to be your cousin.

On hearing this (innovated) report Sa'd was not himself, and making his grip on his weapon firmer, he stood up fearing that Banu Harithah may kill his cousin. Departing he also added: "Usaid! I am so sorry you went there but did nothing worth while."

Sa'd got there and found both Mus'ab and As'ad sitting . comfortably. He thought to himself that probably Usaid had sent him here to listen to what they used to say. And with this nation in his head he started abusing them. And to As'ad he said also this that if he was not his (Sa'd's) cousin, they could not have come to his locality. As'ad said to


 [next] Mus'ab: "Mind you he is a great chief. Ifyou succeed in satisfying him, there will never be any other two men to oppose you in your mission. "

Mus'ab said to Sa'd: "Please be seated and let us talk together. If you agree with what I say, have the goodness to accept it also. If it is otherwise, the option to refuse to oblige remains open to you." Sa'd put down his weapon and took his seat. Mus'ab as usual explained to him the facts of the Islamic faith and recited the Quran also. And consequently Sa'd also put the same question to Mus'ab which Usaid had and on getting the same answer, he too got up, washed his clothes, bathed and pronounced the Kalimah and said two raka'ts of supererogatory prayer. Lifting his weapon, he went back to his assembly and immediately calling his tribes men said to them: "0 Bani Abd-al-Ashhal! What opinion do you hold about me?" They all replied with one voice: "You are our chief, your opinion and your findings are superior." Sa'd said to them: Hark ye, men and women alike, I would not speak to you until and unless you have come to believe in Allah and His Apostle."


The result of Sa'd's warning was really dramatic. There was no one in the tribe of banu Abd-al-Ashhal that had not embraced Islam. In this way through Mus'ab's teachings Islam become the talk of the Yathrib town and their main concern, spreading to all the tribes. And it was the result of this vast propagation of Islam that the next year, the 12th of the Prophet's raising a caravan comprising 73 men and 2 women came to Makkah. They had been sent by the believers of Yathrib to invite the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) to their town, taking assurance of it from him.

This group of the righteousness people of Yathrib during the darkness of the night came to stay at every spot where two earlier groups had stayed. And the apostle of Allah (R) too, in the company of his uncle, Abbas (R) got there. Abbas (R) who had not embraced Islam yet, raised a very pertinent question. He said: "O ye people from Yathrib! You know it very well that the Quraysh of Makkah are the sworn enemies, of Muhammad (P. B.U.H.) thirsting for his blood. If you intend to enter any agreement with him keep the delicacy of such a relationship in mind carefully. Any contract of alliance with Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) inviting red and black (terrible, bloody) wars. Give a serious thought to what you are going to do. Or else it would be better not to venture at all.

These pious people said nothing in reply to the point raised by Abbas (R). They, however, requested the Prophet to say something on that point.



The apostle of Allah (P.B.U.H.) recited to them the Word of Allah, His Message to mankind, which filled them with the light of Belief. After this all of them requested the apostle of Allah to go to Yathrib to live and benefit them directly all the time. He however said to them:

1. Will you stand by me with all your resources in the propagation of Islam, offering un stinted help and cooperation at every step?

2. And when I got settled in your town, will you support me and my companions like that ofyour families? The believers asked him: What shall we get as reward for that service (with all the involved perils).

The Apostle of Allah replied: "Paradise (the abode of Salvation and Divine Pleasure-eternal felicity)

The party of Muslims again asked the apostle of AUah:(P.B.U.H.) "O Apostle of Allah! We, also want assurance from you that you will not leave us at any later stage."

And he said in reply: "No, Never, my life and death will be with you. "

No sooner had they heard these words from him that they, lovers of Truth in a state of ecstasy come forward for Bai'ah (pledge of allegiance) on Islam with him. Bara' bin Ma'roor (R) was the first person to make this pledge.

Some devil incarnate had been watching all these goings-on here from a hill-top and loudly called out: "Come O ye people (of Makkah)! See for yourselves that Muhammad and his party men are having consultations to fight against you."

The apostle of Allah (P.S.U.H.) said to them! "Do not mind this call." Abbas (R) bin Ubadah said to the Prophet (P.B.U.H.): "With your permission we can show the Makkans our swordsmanship. The Prophet (P.S.U.H.) however pointed out to them saying: "I have not yet been permitted by Allah to wage war against them yet."


After this ceremony of Bai'ah, the Prophet selected twelve persons from among the men of Yathrib and called them Naqeeb (a represntative proclaimer) and also explain to


[next] them: "I am selecting you just as 'Isa Ibn Maryam had chosen his twelve disciples (Hawris, friends and companions). You should go home and propagate the Faith from door to door (on my behalf). In Makkah I shall myself do this duty. "

Those twelve heralds of the Prophet (P.B. U.H.) were:

1. As'ad bin Darareh 2. Rafi' bin Malik 3. 'Ubadah bin Samit. And these three had participated in 'Uqbah I also. 4. Sa'd bin Rabi' 5. Manzar bin 'Amr 6. Abd-Allah bin Rawahah, 7. Bara' bin Ma'roor 8. Abd-Allah bin 'Amr bin Haram, 9. Sa'd bin 'Ubadah. They belonged to Khazraj tribe. The three persons selected from Aus tribe were the following:

10. Usaid bin Hudair 11. Sa'd bin Khathimah 12. Abu-AI Hasheem bin Taihan. Allah be pleased with all of them.


All this activity continued during the night. When the day dawned the Quraysh got the wind of it and they set out in search of the Yathribites. They found only two perosns. Sa'd bin 'Ubadah (R) and Manzar bin 'Amr on the scene. The latter of these two took to his heels and the pursuers could not catch up with him, but Sa'd bin 'Ubadah was in their grip and they disabled him by tying his hands behind his back. He received a good beating at their hands while in Makkah. He was one of the heralds. He was tormented but at last rescued by Jubair bin Mut'im and Harith bin Umayyah due to relations of the past.


Afte the Bai'ah of Uqbah II, the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) permitted the Muslims, who had not yet moved out of Makkah and were being badly persecuted, to leave for Yathrib. These true believers were not at all grieved on parting with their homes and hearths and near and dear ones, but were glad at heart that once at Yathrib, they would be perfectly at liberty to worship Allah, the One and Only.


Those migrating to Yathrib had to put up with untold hindrances and hardships of all sorts at the hands of Makkans:


[next] I. When Suhaib Rumi (R) was leaving he was prevented on the ground of taking with him his belongings, which when surrendered he was allowed to leave. The Prophet said Suhaib had a gainful bargain.

2. Umme-Salmah (R) relates her woeful tale that when my husband, myself and my child Salmah started on our journey, we were forcibly separated and my husband alone leaving me in the charge of Banu Mughirah and our very young child taken away by Bani Abd-al Asad. After one long year's grief for my husband and child, due to the clemency of a cousin, I was freed, my child restored to me and I travelled all alone for reunion with my husband at Yathrib three hundred miles away on a camel's back.

Almost every one of the Prophet's companions had to face such obstacles, loss of home and hearth and everything material, they were compelled to leave behind.

3. 'Umar Faruq (R) relates that Aeyash (R) and Hisham (R) had also intended to accompany him in migration to Yathrib. The former could come at the time of departure but the latter was detained by the pagans and incarcerated.

Aeyash was in Madinah when Abu Jahl, his brother by the same mother with the third brother warth came in hot pursuit and on the pretext of her grief for him and in every bad shape, wanted to take him with them to the grieving mother. Inspite of 'Umar's (R) remonstrance with him that he was being duped, he decided to see his mother and return, but was deceitfully overpowered on the way back made captive and brought to Makkah to be cast into prison, with Hisham bin Asi Both of them languished in Captivity and it was only after the Prophet's (P.B.U.H.) reaching Madinah that for his (Prophet's (P.B.U.H.)) pleasure Waleed bin Mughirah came to Makkah and through strategem got them out of prison during the night and left with them for Madinah. Migration was not simply leaving home and property but much more hardship and suffering.


Now a few Muslims were left in Makkah and among the high ranking companions only Abu Bakr (R) and 'Ali (R). And so the Quraysh deemed it a golden chance to kill the Prophet.



 [next] A meeting of the elite of Quraysh was held in Camera at Dar al-Nadwah It was a representative gathering of the chiefs of all the well known tribes and class, including a seasoned old devil from Najd. The satanic suggestions that came from these enemies of Allah and His Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) were: 1. "Yoke and chain him" suggested one and putting him in a room permanently closed with brick work, so that he too, like, Zuhair and Nabigha, may taste of agony before death."

The old man from Najd disagreeing said: "No this is not right. The news of Muhammad's incarceration is sure to find its way to his followers and these Muslims will as surely take him cut and when in power are most likely to annihilate you as well.

Another suggestion was that he should be put on a camel’s back and this driver less animal left alone. Let him go anywhere, settle where he likes, he may live or die should be none of our concern: The old fellow from Najd: "This suggestion too is unsound. Have you forgotten the charming words of Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) Do you not observe that he charms every one he talks to? How easily he wins the hearts of men? Wherever he goes the residents thereof shall get attracted to him and follow him. And they are sure to avenge their Prophet (P.B.U.H.) at your cast.


Finally, Abu Jahl put up a plan that was unanimously uphold.

1. A brave strong man should be selected from every well-known tribe of Arabia.

2. And all of them should surround the house of Muhammad (P.B. U.H.) on all sides.

3. When Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) comes out for the early morning prayer, all these murderers should follow him with their swords. The advantage of this ingenious plan was pointed out that since all the tribes of Arabia shall be involved in the murder, neither his own tribe nor yet his followers can create any trouble.


Utter shameful failure of the best human plans where Divine Decree starts working can be witnessed when we find that on Muhammad's (P.B.U.H.) bouse being surrounded by the murderers, he said to his cousin 'Ali (R): Occupy my bed and covering yourself with my sheet and need have no wony, for nobody can do you any harm. And while 'Ali (R)


[next] slept soundly surrounded by so many murderers and the apostle of Allah (P.B.U.H.) came out, under Allah's protection and before the very eyes of the intending murderers who failed to see him, reciting Surah Yasin ("And we have put up a bar in front of them and a bar behind them. And further, we have covered them up so that they cannot see. (Q. XXXVI: 9). he went his way unseen and unharmed. It happened on 27th of Safar, the 13th year of the Prophet's raising. Thursday, 12th September 621 C.E.

The apostle of Allah (P.B.U.H.) went to the house of his closest friend among men, Abu Bakr (R). They hastily made necessary arrangements for the impending journey. Asma (R) the daughters of Abu Bakr (R) closed the open end of the bag of parched and ground barley with a part of the string binding her drivers out off for this emergency need. In the darkness of the night both of them started on their journey. About four or five miles from Makkah, there is mount Thaur which makes journey toilsome due to ascent on a rocky path. Pointed rough stones were wounding the feet of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) and stumbling also was causing him trouble and pain. Abu Bakr (R) lifted him on his shoulders and finally approached a mountain cave (where they decided to stay during the day light, considering pursuit by the enemy. Abu Bakr (R) asked him to rest outside and himself went into the cave, dusted and cleaned it and with pieces’ tom from the clothes on his body, he plugged the holes in the cave. And then he requested the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) to enter.

When the day dawned, 'Ali (R) got up from his bed and the Quraysh recognized him at close quarters and enquired about Mohammad (P.B.U.H.). 'Ali (R) replied: "What do I know about him. I had not been keeping watch over him. You yourself let him get out and he left. Their repentance for their negligence infuriated them and they fell upon 'Ali and beating him they brought him to Ka'bah, kept him in custody and freed after some time.

Then they came to Abu Bakr's (R) house, knocked at his door. Asma (R), his daughter, responded and came out. Abu Jabl asked her about her father to which she showed her total ignorance. Evil natured as he was, he slapped her so violently that her ear ring fell on the ground.

A small incident is worth mentioning here. Asma (R) says that her father, departing, had taken all the money he found in the house for the use of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.). At her grandfather's remark that Abu Bakr had left, leaving them penniless, she managed to put something where money was kept and leading her blind old grandfather to make


[next] sure through touch that the money was there, she had reassured him since he was worried about Abu Bakr's family and its livelihood. Abu Bakr's daughter was no ordinary girl. She had both, a strong faith and unusual wisdom for her age. These two, the moon and the sun (Abu Bakr (R) and Mohammad (P.B.U.H.)) remained in the cave for three days. During the dark nights Asma (R) used to bring food for the duo and Abdullah, Abu Bakr's (R) son, used to bring to them the talk of town of the day and 'Amir (R) bin Fuhirah (R) a slave of Abu Bakr's family entrusted with Abu Bakr's (R) flock of goats, used to come to the mouth of the cave and milked some goats for them. On the return journey the first foot prints were wiped out by the flock it self.

Abu Bakr (R) was rewarded for his loving care and devotion by Allah in his (Abu Bakr's) mention in the Quran, "Allah is surely with us." where the word "us" includes the Prophet's most devoted companion Abu Bakr(R).

On the fourth night, two she-camels came to the cave from Abu Bakr's house that had been carefully pampered for this long journey. The Prophet and Abu Bakr mounted one and the other was used by 'Amir bin Fahirah and Abdullah bin Ariqat, hired for guidance or route. They started on this journey on Rabi I, Monday which accords with September 16, 622 C.E.

Migration for the sake of Allah alone and the unhampered propagation of His Faith was the sunnah (way) of the earlier prophets like Ibrahim, Moses and Da'ud (P.B.U.T.) as borne out by both the Quran and the Bible and Allah's aid came his and their rescue (earlier) after migration.

Their guide had now taken to a change in the route, by the sea now (as a measure of safety against pursuit). However, Suraqah bin Jaysham, helmeted and fully armed on horse back was in hot pursuit, tempted by the reward announced by the Quraysh for the Prophet (alive or dead), and on seeing him was glad at heart for his success. But the divine plan of rescue came to the aid of the Prophet and Suraqah's mount was on its knees. In another attempt by him the mare under him sank in the sand of the desert and falling down he became alive to the divine protection and his failure. The Prophet who had all the time in communion with Allah, entreating Him for His Allah was informed about the pursuer and Suraqah also very humbly requested to be spared. He was given assurance of safety of life and the pursuer sincerely promised to guard them against other pursuer if any. Then at his own request and the Prophet's bidding, 'Amir bin Fahirah gave him a letter of immunity for future use.


 [next] As a prophesy by the Prophet on this occasion Suraqah had received from him the glad tidings of the jewel studded golden bracelets of Kisra (the ruler of Iran) which he actually received from Caliph 'Umar when Persia was conquered and rich booty came to Madinah, and the prophesy had come true.

The first day after coming out of the Thaur cave, this blessed caravan came upon the camp of Umme Ma'bad. She came from Khuza'ah and well known for the care and feeding of the travellers. She offered water to the passers by and those who need rest were offered that facility too for a while.

When the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) and his companions (R) came to her camp they enquired if she had something to eat. She expressed her regrets saying that if she had any she would have offered before their asking for it. On entering the tent, the Prophet saw a goat in a corner and enquired why was standing there. Umme-Mabad told him that it was too weak to go out for grazing with the flock. At this he sought her permission to milk the goat and the old woman permitted adding that if you expect milk from it do as you please.

The Prophet touched the teat of the goat invoking Allah's name and taking a milk pot started milking. Soon the pot was brimming over with milk. This was taken by him and his companions. Repeating the operation, they took it together. A third operation too gave as much milk and this was handed over to Umme-Ma'bad, the owner of the goat, and started once again on their journey.

After sometime Umm-e-Ma'bad's husband came home and seeing the milk enquired about it. UmmeMa'bad explained to him how a blessed person came here and it is the miracle that he performed. He said, this person you mention appears to be the same Qurayshite I have been looking for. Let me hear from you something about his appearance. Umm-e-Ma'bad described the features of the Prophet thus:

Attractive face, open courtenance, good natured, neither with a pot belly nor a bald head, handsome to look at, big bright black eyes, and black long thick hair, commanding tone, high neck, fine and joint eye brows. Curly hair sparing in speech and speaking with dignity and confidence, so as to touch the heart, looked from a distance fascinating in appearance, and at close quarters sweet and perfect in charms, sweet of speech, clear words in a clear tone, neither sparing in words nor verbose, neither shorts statured nor unusualy talk, companions always at his serviced command, who likes to his words


 [next] attentively and rush to obey and do his bidding. And he the master neither very brief (sparing in words) nor a prolix (long winded speaker).

On hearing so much about him from his wife he said that he is certainly that 'Sahib-e-Quraysh' (the Qurash supremo). I must go and see him.


We have given a brief account of the thirteen years’ activity of the Prophet in Makkah. Although the number of Muslims did not exceed a couple of hundred but it was a unique success since it had won over men.

1. like 'Ali, Abu Bakr, 'Uthman and 'Umar (R) to him as companions, whole excellence of knowledge, practical charm, power, mental vision and traits of the best capabilities which made them the leaders and guides of the then known world.

2. Or they were men of such talents and competency as Mus'ab bin 'Umair, Ja'far Tayyar and Abu 'Ubaidah bin-al-Jarah(R). They converted the entire populations of Yathrib, Abyssinia and Najran through their magical sermons.

3. Or there were people of the high grade like AbdAllah bin Mas'ood and Abd-al-Rahman whose traditions of learning and knowledge are the store house of innumerable fine points of religious instruction.

4. Or those of the rank of Zubair, Talhah and 'Ammar Yasir (R) whose devotion and love of Truth are unparalled in the world history.

5. Or the type of Bilal, Sumayyah, Yasir and Ka'b, Khabbab (R) who had, with their patient perseverance and firmness of stand, tired the Pharaohs (tyrants) of the times in the exercise of tyranny and future.

6. Or yet those with courage and resolution of Sakran, Shamoos, Umm-e-Habibah and Khanees who had, for the sake of the Faith of Truth, left their country of birth, near and dear ones, to go to a strange country, Abyssinia, and settled there.

7. Or eloquent, learned and fluent in speech like labeed and Swaid bin Samil, called Kamil (the Prophet) and Anees brother of Abu Zarr (R) who got the better of several tribes with one speech or another and were unique in the world of their own times, at least to themselves. And it was during this period that Islam had spread outside Makkah also. A few examples from that lot of Muslim:


 [next] 1. Tufail bin 'Amr Dausi who ruled over a territory, close to Yemen had embraced Islam in Makkah and due to the efforts of Tufail Islam had found ascendancy in his country.

2. Abu Zarr Ghifari (R) his brother Anees (R) and his mother and half his tribe Banu Ghifar had become Muslims.

3. Twenty persons from the Christians of Najran.

4. Zamad-al-Azdi, the famous soothsayers of Yemen.

5. The bani Abd-al-Ashhal tribe.

6. Tamim and Na'im and a few citizens of Syria.

7. Many people in Abyssinia and so on.


On his way to Yathrib the Prophet came across Baridah Aslami, the chief of his tribe. The Quraysh had announced a reward of hundred camels for the arrest of Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) and baridah had come out looking for him to win this reward. But when he came face to face with the Prophet and had an occasion to speak to him, Baridah (R) along with seventy companions of his embraced Islam. Taking off his turban he tied to his, lance and thus unfurling the white flag of peace and amity he went forward, conveying the glad tidings to all those who could hear, that the king of peace, supporter of concord and friendship and to make justice and equity reign supreme in the world is coming,

On his way the Prophet met Zubair (R) bin-al' Awam met him, coming from Syria with the Muslim traders of Makkah, He presented white cloth to the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) and Abu Sakr (R).


On 8th Rab I, 13th year of the Prophet's (P.B.U.H.) raising, Monday the 23rd of September 622 C.E. the apostle of Allah reached Quba (the entrance to yathrib). The Yathribites having heard of the Prophets leaving Makkah had made it their daily program of waiting at the entry to Yathrib from morning to midday. One of these days they had hardly left their places of waiting (only a few minutes earlier) that the Prophet


 [next] approached and at somebody's loud call they one and all turned back, came together and with the cries of Allah-u-Akbar (Allah is the greatest) as their slogan of reception they greeted him from all sides around him. There were among them those who had not seen the Prophet before that were often in doubt about the identities of the Apostle of Allah and his companion Abu Bakr (R). The latter had the perception of the need of identification and stood up protecting the Prophet from the heat of the sun.

The apostle of Allah stayed here until Thursday. And during the three days of his stay here the first thing that he took in hand was to lay the foundation of a mosque here for the worship of Allah the One and Only, without any partners. And it was here that 'Ali (R) having travelled all the way from Makkah to Yathrib, (a distance of 300 miles) on foot, joined the Prophet (P.B.U.H.). He had stayed back in Makkah, under orders from the apostle of Allah, to return the Trusts (articles entrusted to the care of the Prophet in Makkah) to their rightful owners.

12th Rabi I of the finest year of the Prophet's migration to Madinah (12.3.1 A.H) was Friday. The Prophet mounted his camel had reached the habitations of Bani Salim when it was time for Friday congregation, and he got down and led the prayer with a hundred persons following him. This was the first Friday congregational prayer in Islam fifteen hundred years back, (during the prophethood of the Final Prophet of Islam, though it had continued earlier under all other prophets also).


All praise is due to Allah. I praise him and seek Help, forgiveness and guidance from Him. I repose my faith in Him, I do not transgress against him and have feelings of hostility towards those who are transgressors. I bear witness that there is no one worthy of worship save Allah. He is Unique (unparalleled). He has no partners. Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) his servant and Apostle. He sent Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) with guidance, light and exhortation, at a time when for centuries no apostle came to humanity for guidance. (True knowledge had become deficient and ignorance had pervaded (mankind). He was sent very close to the Doomsday and death. Whoever obeys Allah and His apostle is on the right path and whoever disobeyed then went on the wrong track, and degraded himself and is entangled in serious misguidance.

O ye Muslims! I command you to fear (displeasure of) Allah. The best injunction from a


[next] Muslim to another Muslim is this that he should induce him to get prepared for the Last Day, and advise him to hear Allah's (displeasure). O ye people! keep away from those things Allah has forbidden. There is no better advice nor a better 'zikr' (remembrance of Allah). Keep in mind that relating to things pertaining to the Hereafter, for a person who is working in constant fear of Allah for a person who is working in constant fear of Allah taqwa (piety) is the best help. And when a person will set right the relationship between him and Allah, both overtly and covertly and so doing his intent is pure (sincere), in that case so doing will be remembrance of Allah in this world and after death (when man will factually realize and stand badly in need of good deeds) it will become a (most profitable source to save him (from damnation in the sight of Allah).

But if somebody does not act in that manner, he has come for mention in the verse: "It will wish there were a great distance between it and its evil, but Allah cautious you (to fear) Him and Allah is full of kindness to those that serve Him. (Q.l: 30 And whoever took Allah's command as true and fulfilled its conditions, he has been commented upon in the following words of Allah: "The word changes not with Me and I do not the least injustice to My servants. (Q.L:29)

O ye believers! Keep in view in your present and future and overt and covert deeds, fear of Allah since the evil deeds of the God-fearing are passed over cursorily (or overlooked). The pious are those who will attain great felicity. It is taqwa (piety) that takes away Allah's displeasure. His chastisement and His wrath. It is piety that turns darkness into luminosity, invites Allah's pleasure and elevates the position. o ye Muslim! Do derive pleasure but do not neglect the divine rights. Allah has taught you His Book and shown you His Way, the righteous and those given to falsehood may be kept distinctly apart. Allah has treated you kindly so you too be kindly and generously disposed towards His servants (the people). And take the enemies of Allah as your enemies. And strive in the way of Allah as you ought to strive (with sincerity and under discipline) .... and has named you Muslim." (Q. XXII: 78). That those who died might die under a clear Sign (had been given), and all those who lived might live under a clear sign (had been given), (Q. VIII: 42). And all good deeds come into existence with Allah's Help. O ye people! Remember Allah and work for the life Hereafter. For, whoever sets right his relationship with Allah, Allah set right his relationship with other people. And Allah exercises His Authority and rule and governs men's affairs. And nobody can have any say in His Affairs. Allah is the Lord and Master of His servants and they have no authority where Allah comes in. Allah is the Greatest and we derive our will and power for good deeds solely from that Lord of all Greatness.



Having done with Friday congregation the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) entered Yathrib proper from the southern side and it was from that day that Yathrib came to be called Madinah-al-Nabi (the town of the Prophet) or Madinah in short.

His entry was grand indeed the streets of the town were resounding with the slogans of praise and sanctification, and men, women and children were all eyes for a glance at the luminary from Allah. Watching this grandeur and sanctity of his reception it was disclosed to the learned men of the people of the Books what the following statement in Habakkuk Prophet's Book chapter III. V 3:

God came from Teman, and the Holy One from Paran. Selah, His glory covered the heavens, and the earth was full of his praise.

1. Faran or Makkah, since Faran bin 'Auf bin Himyar had once occupied it.

The innocent little girls of Ansar were singing the following couplets in an enchanting tone and unsullied tongues:

The full moon has risen upon us from the southern mountains.

We owe thanks to Allah for the Superb Faith and its teachings,

We are duty bound to obey thy commands for thou hast been sent by Allah the Patron Lord the Obeyed One.

These girls belonged to the fresh converts to Islam knowing pledged allegiance to Islam at the hands of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) in Makkah or those whom Mus'ab bin 'Umair and Ibn Maktoom had converted in Yathrib.

The Ansar of Madinah were not in an enviable position where material wealth was concerned but so large-hearted, great lovers of Islam that they kept nothing back from sharing with their migrant brothers with whom they had been formally fraternized by the Prophet, prepared to divorce an extra wife for a muhajir brother. They fed the hungry mouths often on a hungry stomach themselves as evidenced by the Quran also:

And those who before them, had homes (in Madinah) and had adopted the Faith, show their affection to such as come to them for refuge, and entertain no desire in their hearts


[next] for things given to the (latter), but give them preference over themselves, even though poverty was their (own lot). Al Quran LlX : 9


Makkah was populated by Quraysh alone who were dominant and ruled over it. They had also a common creed iconolatry. Madinah was a mixture of various commuriities and religions, including idolaters and Judaic race and religion, a sprinkling of Christians. The Jewish tribes Banu Nadeer, Banu Qaninqa', and banu Quraiza, lived in separate fortresses and due to their trade and usury were rich and had sway over other communities.

According to the prediction of Moses, the Jews had been expecting the promised messiah (that prophet) to be born among Banu Isma'il of Arabia, who would restore the demi grated Jewish community to its former glory and had staged so long in Madinah, particularly after expulsion from Syria.

Now the news of the arrival of the prophet ofBanu Isma'il had gladdened their hearts. But once they learnt that he supports Jesus Christ as a true apostle of Allah and believing in him is an inseparable part of his faith, Islam, and thus acknowledging his true exalted position brings the Judaic people to the dock for their grave injustice in rejecting, insulting and handing him over to the pagan roman governor, they one and all became deadly enemies of their "0ne time expected redeemer."

The Christian citizens of Madinah too were longing for the promised messiah the comforter, whose arrivaI had been foretold by 'Isa in his last sermon. he had ordered his followers, Muslims, who, latter in their misguidance, came to call their faith Christianity (as if it was a faith founded by Christ, and themselves Christians) to follow him. From that time (for six centuries) they had waited for him, who would avenge them against the Jews, raise the Christians to a higher position in the world, bring out the true position of Christ lowered by the Jews. But when they found him rejecting their self-invented (innovative) elements of Faith like making 'Isa ibn Maryam, 'Isa ibn-Allah (the son of God), trinity, atonement, asceticism and the almost divine right of Pope, they too became sworn enemies of ‘that prophet.'

It would be worthwhile casting a glance at Abdallah bin Ubai bin Salool to grasp the true position of Madinah of this period. Besides the sway of the Jews, he too enjoyed a position of great influence over Madinites and he had been nursing hopes of becoming


 [next] the crowned king of Madinah with the support of these tribes who held him in great esteem and it is said preparations were already afoot for his formal coronation before the arrival of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) and other Muslim migrants from Makkah. Under drastically changed conditions he also accepted Islam hypocritically. But finding the Jews opposing the Prophet he strategically tried to maintain friendly relations with them (the Jews), and the tribes converted to Islam may also remain under his influence as of late. So these hypocrites resorted to double-dealing. And since he had the mistaken notion that the advent of Islam had put cold water on his ambitious plans, he never hesitated in harming the Muslims and their cause. So Madinah too had many difficulties in store for Islam and Muslims. But Islam got over their difficulties due to its true nature. The Quran had predicted it. "And the later period is both for you than the former." Q. XCIII: 4


The Prophet once in Madinah in the very first year of Hijrah considered in the fitness of things to enter a contract with all the ethnic and religious parties around him so that despite differences racial and cultural unity may be maintained and in civilization and culture there may be spirit of cooperation.

Some select terms of this contract are as under:

1. This is a document from Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) the apostle of Allah among the Muslims, Quraysh or citizens of Yathrib, with those who are associated with them (Muslim) and their partners in day to day affairs (of the administration and maintenance of peace.

2. In spite of the differences in their identities they will be regarded one nation (people of a country).

3. The Judaic people of Bani 'Auf are one nation with the Muslims.

4. And whoever starts hostilities with these entrants of contract, one and all will oppose him en masse. The


 [next] Muslims shall come to their aid.

5. The relations of the contracting units shall be based on mutual well-wishing and benefiting and not harming and sinning against.

6. During the wars the Jews will be contributors in expenditure of war.

7. The rights of the nation’s friendly to the Jews shall be on a par with the Jews.

8. No one will start any move hostile to his ally of contract.

9. The oppressed shall be supported and helped.

10. Bloodshed on the soil of Madinah shall be strictly prohibited to all the partners of the contract.

11. The neighbors too will be deemed on a par with the partners of contract.

12. If something happens among the partners threatening violence, the decision will rest with Allah and His apostle Muhammad (P.B.U.H.).


When signatures of all the Madinite communities were taken on this charter of rights, the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) wanted to include the tribes of the neighboring areas also in this agreement, having in view two advantages:

1. To put an end to the tribal mutual clashes and unnecessary bloodshed (of the guilty and innocent alike).

2. The Quraysh of Makkah shall not be able to instigate the tribes that have entered the contract against the Muslims.

(a) With this intention the Prophet, in the first year after migration from Makkah travelled up to Waddan (between Makkah and Madinah) and included Bani Hamzah, bin Bakr bin Abd Munaf of tribe in the agreement mentioned above. It was signed by 'Amr bin Fehshi Al-Sakhri.

(b) And for the same purpose the apostle of Allah went to Razwi in the month of Rabi I, 2 A. H and brought into the agreement the people of bawat mountain.


 [next] (c) And in the same year (2 A.H.) in the month of Jamadi II the Prophet went to Zil 'Ashirah, situated somewhere between Madinah and Yanbu,' and after signature of Banu Mudlaj on the contract he returned to Madinah. If he had had sufficient time for extending this agreement further, the world would have become conscious of the fact that the apostle of Allah, Mercy for mankind had come not to draw sword but to bring peace to humanity.


The Quraysh of Makkah in their animosity to the Prophet and the Muslims had gone so far that even after their migration to Madinah 300 miles from their town they were not at ease and did not let them live in peace. Earlier on the migration to Abyssinia they had tried to detain them and on the second occasion went in pursuit of them to Abyssinia in an attempt for their extradition. And as we have seen earlier miserably failed in these attempts. And now when they had come to Madinah, they followed them there too and intended to attack them.

As a preliminary they had written to Abd-Allah bin Ubai that they had given protection to their man (the Prophet). So they were duty bound to fight against him or compel him to leave their town. Or else they have resolved under an oath to attack Madinah, murdering your young men and taking your women as slave girls.


On receiving this letter Abd-Allah bin Uba'i decided in favor of giving the Prophet and his Muslim followers a fight. The Prophet got scent of this conspiracy and personally going to the hostile group to talk to them directly.

The Prophet said to them: "The Quraish have played this trick upon you so that if you are taken in by them you will come to much greater harm than in violation of their terms. For, if you were to fight against the Muslims you will be slaughtering your own sons. In case you are confronted by Quraysh, it will be waging war against aliens. "

This brief talk of the Prophet had such an effect on their minds that the entire gathering got immediately dispersed.


After failure in the first attempt, the Quraysh secretly started their conspiratorial moves


[next] with the Judaic community of Madinah. And when they were perfectly in league with them, with full confidence in their success they sent the following message to the Muslims of Madinah:


"Do not be proud of your safe arrival from Makkah, and do not gloat over your success against us. We are capable of your ruin even there-your safe refuge, your asylum. After this challenging message they started vexing them.


In Rabi I, 2 A.H. one of the tribal chiefs from Quraish, Kurz bin Jabir, Al fahri came to Madinah and drove away the cattle of Madinites grazing out of the town and made his escape good, as if to impress upon them that they could strike at them from a distance of 300 miles whenever they were pleased.

Then in the month of Ramadan 2 A.H., Abu Jahl gave it out falsely that the Muslims are going to way lay our caravan laden with rich goods. This baseless propaganda against the Muslims was aimed at instigating all those who had a share in trade or their men formed the trade caravan or all those nursing hatred against the Muslims, may come together ready to fight against Muslims en masse. And they succeeded in this mischievous plan of theirs.


With a vast army of one thousand venture some, valiant, fierce fighters with seven hundred camels and those hundred horses as mounts, Abu Jahl came out of Makkah. The caravan (had not been engaged in attach on its way by the Muslim army and it had reached Makkah safely, but Abu Jahl continued his movement towards Madinah and the Muslims were now dead sure of his evil design to attack them.

The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) had consulted the companions in this behalf. The muhajirs (migrants) came out with a satisfactory answer (to lay down their lives against the invading army). He repeated his query and they firmly assured him of their faithful obedience. When he put the same question a third time, the Ansar (old residents of Madinah) took it that he was waiting for their response. Sa’d bin Mu'az said, "Perhaps you have taken it on principle that Ansars do not regard it their duty to stand by you and


 [next] their Muslim brethren if it comes to an encounter outside Madinah. On behalf of Ansars I assure you that we are with you under all conditions whether you enter an agreement or reject another. You can take as much from our goods as you please and leave for us as much as you please. That taken by you would be preferable to us than that left with us. We shall obey you, order us what you are pleased. We shall gladly follow you if you take us to the 'Imran spring, we will follow you. And if you order us to enter an ocean, we will enter with you." Miqdad said: "O Apostle of Allah! we are not like the people of Moses to say "Go thou, and thy Lord, and fight ye two, while we sit here (Q. V: 24), for we are with you everywhere, right, left, in front and behind, ready to fight."

The Muslims were not in a state of perfect readiness (most of them had come out to intercept a caravan of a few highly armed guards of Quraysh and not fierce fighting forces). There were 313 persons in all, muhajirs and Ansars combined.


Muslims had so far not permitted to enter wars even in the face of strong opposition and persecution, for Islam is the religion of peace avoiding armed struggle if peace can be maintained without it. That is why they put up with oppression quietly and moved out of Madinah, leaving behind their birth place, houses and where withal to abstain from contention. And they overlooked vexation even after getting out of the way of their opponents. But now things had come to such a pass that clash was inevitable, for even survival of Islam dearer to Muslims than even their lives. After annihilation of this handful of devotees engaged in Allah's clarification and propagation of Divine Faith, none would have been left to take it up. 'Isa (P.B.U.H.) had also, at the end of his brief mission of less than three years, compelled by necessity, had ordered his disciples to purchase arms even if they had to part with their clothes, cash and other belongings:

Then set he unto them, but now he that hath a purse, let him take it, and likewise his scrap and he that hath no sword, let him sell his garments, and buy one. Luke 22: 36. So it was this pressing need of self-defense and protection of their Faith that Allah in His Infinite Mercy, permitted them to take to arms in emergencies like the present, after they had very patiently preserved with oppression and tyranny, excesses, loss of life and property, insults and difficulties in living up to the dictates of Faith.

Below is given the first permission as revealed in the Quran :

To those against whom war is made permission is given (to fight) because they are


 [next] wronged and verily Allah is most Powerful for their aid. (They are) those who have been expelled from their homes in defiance of rights, (for no cause) except that they say, "Our Lord is Allah." Did not Allah check one set of people by means of another, there would surely have been pulled down monasteries, churches, synagogues and mosques, in which the name of Allah is commemorated in abundant measure. Allah will certainly aid those who aid His (cause) for verily Allah is full of strength, Exalted in Might, (able to enforce His will). -Q. XXII: 39-40.

The Quran, as everybody can see for himself, points out the reasons behind this permission, which also brings out clearly the nature of this war-defensive and not aggressive as the wars of the ungodly."

1. The first reason given here is oppressed condition of those fighting in defense of self and their Faith, which the people of our age have termed right of self-determination justifying even armed struggle in its defense.

2. The second reason is their expulsion from their homes and hearths, deprivation from their wherewithal and that too on the basis of difference of creed. The so-called peace-loving King Edward VII, in his message to his Indian subjects on the occasion of 50th anniversary of the British rule in India in a tone of great pride among other things, that "during these fifty years’ no one has ever been harmed on grounds of the difference of creed, when it is no secret that all these Muslims were those who had been tortured, deprived of rights, jailed, exiled, hanged and shot for their only crime that they asserted strongly. "Our Lord is Allah."

3. The third reason pointed out by the Quran is not of exclusive advantage to the Muslims but very wide in its scope, almost universal, covering the two major faiths of the world, Judaism and Christianity, whose protection has also been thus ensured, Mosques of Islam and Muslims finding the last place on this list, (probably out of courtesy shown to even these enemies of Allah. Moreover, Muslims had entered an agreement with these two religious communities in Madinah and this was out of regard for maintaining friendly relations with them. However, the Muslim community was of the greatest importance, since it was they who pledged and actually laid down their lives in defense of the right of self-determination for humanity at large. Without their waging wars through the ages, there would have been no party of selfless, righteous justice-loving party in the world for the defense of the charter of human rights and the world would have never heard of them.


 [next] All these factors made it imperative for the Muslims to check them on the way to Madinah, in spite of their extreme pan city of arms, mounts and rations they had decided upon total confrontation.


During the month of Ramadan 2 A. H. the apostle of Allah as the head of the Muslims started from Madinah. An idea of their military equipment can be had from the fact that they had only two horses and sixty camels.

Shall we call it a matter of chance that the participants in the battle of Badr were just the same in number as those of the army of Taloot (saul) against Jaloot (Goliath).

On arriving at the battle field of Badr the Muslim witnessed the enemy's fighting force three times their own number and in the matter of equipment they stood no comparison with the enemy.

A day ahead of the battle, the Prophet inspected the battle field, pointing out with precision that Allah Willing such and such men of the opposing force will fall dead at such and such places on the battle ground.

On Friday, the 17th Ramadan the two fighting forces confronted each other. The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) entreated Allah for success in the battle against the enemy, saying that if these handful of Muslims get killed, there will be no one left to proclaim the message of Thy Unity. The Muslims also prayed earnestly.

With the aid of Allah, the enemy was defeated at the hands of the Muslims. Seventy of their fighters were killed and another seventy taken prisoners. Abu Jahl was killed exactly at the site pointed out by the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) had pointed out to his companions the previous day. It was he who had brought the hosts (to wipe out the Muslims). Out of the fourteen tribal chiefs who had come together at Dar-al-Nadwah for deliberations on the theme of the Prophet's (P.B.U.H.) murder, eleven lay dead on the battle field. The three survivors had at last embraced Islam.

In keeping with (a) the accepted law of war (b) the passion of the oppressed Muslims for revenge (c) the need of over awing the other tribes of Arabia with horror of war, the situation demanded the killing of the prisoners of war, but the Prophet of Mercy freed them all on payment of ransom. The ransom for the freedom of the literate prisoners was literacy of the children of Ansar.


 [next] The trial of strength of the two parties of the battle of Badr proved true the prophecy of the Quran while permitting the Muslims to fight against the invader:

"Allah will certainly aid those who aid His (cause), for verily Allah is full of Strength, Exalted in Might (able to enforce His Will." - Al Quran XXII: 40.

That is why this battle has been termed Yaum-alFurqan (the day of evidence or proof), since the Muslims and the people of the Book had been provided with evidence on the true nature of the Islamic Faith. Allah has elsewhere mentioned this incident, the Battle of Badr, in the following words:

Allah had helped you at Badr when ye were helpless: then fear Allah: thus may ye show your gratitude. - Al Quran 111:123.


A few days after the battle of Badr, Safwan bin Umayyah, whose father was killed in Badr and 'Umair bin Wahab whose son was a prisoner in the hands of Muslims, came together in a desolate spot outside Makkah and asked about the Prophet (P.B.U.H.).

Umair said to his associate: "If I was not indebted irredeemably, and I had not been worried about the helplessness of my family in my absence (death) I would have myself gone to Madinah and would have made short shrift of Mohammad (killed him)."

Safwan blurted out: "I shall clear thy debts and support thy family during my own life-time. "

'Umair, assenting, said to him: Settled. But this secret of ours should not be allowed to leak out." Then he got his sword sharpened and poisoned and started off on his mission.

On arrival in Madinah, he was making his camel sit in front of the Prophet's mosque when the camel started gurgling. 'Umar Faruq (R) saw and recognizing him, it occurred to him that this devil has come with an evil intent. And so he approached the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) informing him that 'Umair bin Wahab was coming and was fully armed. The Prophet said: "Let him come to me." 'Umar (R) got hold of the hilt of his sword and holding his neck took him to the Prophet who asked 'Umar (R) to free him, and asked 'Umair to come to him. 'Umair coming before him greeted him formally. The Prophet


 [next] asked him: "What brings you here? He said in reply: "I have come to see my son a prisoner here." The Prophet further enquired: "And how about this sword of yours." He tauntingly remarked: "Of what use is this sword? And what have our swords achieved when pitted against you?" The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) said to him: "Be honest and come out with the truth 'Umair repeated his reply. The apostle of Allah said: "Look here, you and Safwan had gone to a desolate spot in the hills outside Makkah. Safwan has taken upon himself relieving thee of thy debts and support of thy family, and thou hath promised him my head with which intent thou art here. 'Umair, thou did not care to think that Allah Himself is my Protector. "

On hearing this much from the Prophet he was confounded. He submitted: "Now I am satisfied that you are certainly the Prophet and a Messenger of Allah." It was easy for us to falsify you about heavenly realities and revelations and were engaged in it with impunity. But I have no explanation for this secret that was strictly between Safwan and me. No third person could have got wind of it. I must be grateful to Allah Who made it (the disclosure to you of our well-guarded secret through super natural means) the cause of my embracing Islam.

The Prophet said to the companions: "Teach your brother his Faith, make him memorize the Quran and free his son." Umair said: "O Apostle of Allah! Kindly be so good as to permit me to go to Makkah and call people to Islam. And now I intend to vex and torment the idolaters in the same way as I did to the Muslims before this.

After 'Umair had left for Madinah, Safwan used to say to the elite among the Quraysh: "Just wait. Shortly there is going to be good news from Madinah which will relieve you of the shock of Badr."

But when Safwan learnt that 'Umair had embraced Islam, he was shocked and he viewed not to speak to him for the rest of his life, nor allow any benefit to go to him if it can be helped.

'Umair came to Makkah. He used to proclaim the message of Islam and many people embraced Islam through his efforts.


After the disgraceful defeat at Badr, Abu Sufyan, now the outstanding leader of Quraysh, had under an oath denied himself a change of clean clothes and bathing his body, until


 [next] he had avenged himself and the community of Muslims. So he came out of Makkah with two hundred mounted men and an approaching Madinah he detached himself from them and in the darkness of the night entered the town all alone (by stealth) and met his friend Salam bin Mashkam a Jew and spent the night with him in a drinking orgy of sorts. Probably in their mutual consultation it was decided that the time was not appropriate for an attack. So during the last part of the night he came out and setting fire to fruit laden trees of Muslims and murdering a Muslim and his ally, returned home.

On receiving information, he and his retinue of two hundred men were given a hot pursuit up to Qarqarah-alkadar. So this pursuit of the invaders has come to be called 'Ghazwah' (Expedition) of Qarqarah-al-Kadar. On the return journey the contingent of the Abu Sufyan dropped their tiny bags of parched, ground barley and therefore this is also known as Ghazwah-al-Saweeq.


Next year the Quraysh of Makkah attacked Madinah once again. This time they had collected funds from the citizens in general. The poet Abu 'Uzzah in his campaign in Tahawah had reconciled Banu Kananah to come to the aid of Makkans in their strife against Madinite Muslims. Fifty thousand Mithqal of gold (about 225 kilogram) and a thousand camels from Syria the collective property of Makkan traders, was also donated by common consent generously to war fund. In Short an army of five thousand blood thirsty fighters of various tribes, comprising three thousand camerlry and two hundred strong cavalry and seven hundred armored infantry men, came to attack Madinah. The Prophet was in favor of the defense of Madinah from inside. But the young zealots (who had remained deprived of participation at Badr insisted on confrontation with the enemy outside in the open. And the issue was decided in favour of the majority. With true democratic spirit the Prophet did not insist on his own and that of older men's nature and wiser opinion nor the decision once taken was changed (when on second though the younger lot repented and requested revision). So the Muslims came out to the mount Uhud, about three miles from Madinah and confronted the enemy from Makkah.

The Muslim fighting force comprised one thousand men. But at the nick of the moment and most critical juncture the arch-hypocrite, Abd-Allah bin Uba'i bin Salul played foul and betraying the Muslims left with his three hundred misguided and hypocritic companions. The burden of facing the enemy hordes, five thousand strong (furious with passion of revenge) came to the shoulders of the remaining seven hundred. The


 [next] Muslims had inflicted defeat on such a powerful enemy with numerical superiority and much more and better equipment, and twelve of their standard bearers were killed (eight of them at the hands of 'Ali Murtaza alone). But the Muslim contingent of archers stationed by the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) to guard a mountain pass, the only vulnerable position for the Muslim ranks, was deserted by them (under the erroneous notion that the battle was over and they too were free to collect booty from the defeated, fleeing army). They misunderstood and disobey the Prophet (P.B.U.H.). The clever enemy took advantage of this error on the part of Muslims and taking a round surrounded the Muslim from both sides. (Khalid bin Waleed, yet in the opposite camp, with his cavalry attacked the Muslim, through the vulnerable and now unguarded pass and created havoc. Causing great loss and dispersing the greater part of the rest).

Among the companions of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) the following 12 were with him: Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Ali, Abd-al-Rahman bin 'Auf, sa'd bin waqas, Talha bin Abdullah, Zubair bin-awam, Abu'Ubaidah bin Jarah, and four other, Allah be pleased with all of them, never left him alone (to fend for himself). The enemies threw stones at him. That thrown by Ibn Qumayyah wounded his forehead and that by Ibn Hisham his arm. Utbah's stone broke four of his teeth. Again, he had fallen into a deep pit and it was erroneously given out that he has been killed. Honourable woman from Madinah rushed to Uhud. Once in the battle field, Fatimah (R) washed her father's wounds, and stopped haemorrhage with burnt mat (ash). 'Ali Murtaza (R) brought water in his shield and 'Ayeshah Siddiqah (R) and Umm-e-Sulaim (R) took up small leather water bags and brought water to the wounded lying on the battle field. Seventy companions of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) were war casualties.

The heaviest loss in this battle field was the fall of Mus'ab bin 'Umair who had come to Madinah as an ambassador of Islam, a connecting link between Makkah and Madinah and whose sermons converted the tribes of Aus and Khazraj to Islam, was martyred here. His wife, Hamnah bint Jahash had received news of the martyrdom of her brother and maternal uncle and had quietly recited the Quranic words of resignation to the Will of Almighty Allah. "Verily to Allah do we belong and it is to Him that we are destined to return" and prayed for their forgiveness. After that she was told of her husband's martyrdom, on hearing which still gave out a loud cry of anguish and grief. The Prophet remarked: "See, how much she loved her husband. "

In this battle, the prophet's uncle, Hamzah (R) (lion of Allah and His Apostle) also got martyred. His dead body was desecrated by the unbelieving lady Hindah. After the war


 [next] was over. Safiyah, mother of Zubair (R) came to see the dead body of Hamzah, her brother. Zubair tried to stop her but that brave lady insisting on seeing it, saying:"I know that my brother's dead body has been mutilated and desecrated. But this is something to be proud of for us. My dear son, I am neither going to cry over it nor scream but only to pray for him."


Anas bin Nadhar too had been martyred in this battle. This valiant soul noticed certain brave and courageous Muslims who, throwing away their arms were sitting crest fallen and in great grief. He asked them: "What is wrong with you?" They said to him "The Apostle of Allah has passed away. Anas said to them passionately: Where the Apostle of Allah laid down his life, we too should sacrifice ourselves for the same noble cause.

What use is living after him." And entering the thick of the battle he fell on the enemy in a rage, received seventy wounds of deadly weapons and entered heaven.

Sa'd bin Rabi' was another martyr in this battle of Uhud. After the battle was over. The Prophet sent out his men to search his dead body. One of them saw him in pangs of death lying among the wounded and dying. When asked about his condition, he replied: "Take me for dead now. But have the goodness to convey my respects to the Prophet of Allah. And also say to him pray to Allah that He may reward him with a reward greater than any given to any prophet for his guidance to his people. And convey from me this message to the Muslim community that so long as there is a single eye among them that winks if the enemy is allowed to get to him, they will have no excuse to offer to their Lord for that negligence. "

A companion of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) has stated that he went to see Abu Bakr (R). Sitting on his chest I found a small girl whom he was kissing and fondling. I asked him about that child and was told that she was the daughter of Sa'd bin Rabi'. He was superior to me and on the Day of Reckoning he will be among the heralds of the Apostle of Allah.

'Amarah bin Ziyad too was one of the martyrs of this battle. When in the pangs of death, he had dragged himself somehow to bring his cheeks in contact with the feet of the Prophet, dying the most peaceful death.



[next] All these valiant supporters of Islam had performed deeds of extra-ordinary temerity and valour in this battle. 'Ali (R) had single handedly, killed eight opponents as mentioned earlier. Talhah had used his hand as the shield to protect the Prophet from the enemy's arrows. This hand of his had become palsied and crippled forever.


A lady of Banu Dinar tribe had lost her father, a brother and husband (having probably heard the false rumor about the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) Madinah) came to the scene of action and enquired about him. People told her that by the Grace of Allah he was all right. But she wanted to make sure and he was pointed out to her at a distance. Thus assured she exclaimed showing her satisfaction:" Now that the Apostle of Allah is among us, any grief, however tormenting has become bearable."


Some companions of his suggested to him to curse the pagans (when he himself was badly wounded by them). the Prophet, however, said to them in his usual mild tone: "I have not been sent to curse but to call (mankind to Allah and His Faith) and as Mercy to them. '0 my Lord, guide them (to the right path) for they know me not. "


After the battle of Uhud the enemies of Islam and Muslims, adopted various methods of harming Muslims. So in the 4th year after Hijrah:

1. Seven persons of Adal and Qarah communities were instructed by the Quraysh and sent to the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) with the request that since their tribes were ready to embrace Islam some preachers should be sent with them to teach Islam to them. The Apostle of Allah sent with them ten companions of his as preachers of Faith with 'Asim bin Thakit leading this party. When these companions (on a mission of preaching) with their treacherous guides had come in their range to become easy targets, two hundred armed men came out and wanted to arrest them alive. But the companions confronted them and eight of them fell fighting. Two of the party Khubaib bin 'Adi and Zaid bin Wathnah (Allah be pleased with all the ten of them), were however arrested by these barbarian, and sold out to the Quraysh of Makkah.



The Quraysh kept them confined without food and water for a few days in the house of Harith bin 'Amir. One day a child of Harith playing with a household knife approached Khubaib. Out of love with little children Khubaib lifting him up placed him on his thigh and taking the knife from his hand put it aside. The child's mother noticing that her child with a knife was with the prisoner who had been starved by them. So out of fear of safety to the child a loud scream left her lips. Khubaib, however assuring remarked: "she mistakenly is under the impression that I can kill her child, not knowing that a Muslim is not guilty of perfidy. And they are very kind to everyone, particularly children.

The tyrants of Quraysh took him to the cross offering him his freedom on condition of rejecting Islam. Both the prisoners said in reply: "What is life worth after rejection of Islam?" They then asked him: "If you have any desire, let us know." Khubaib as their spokesman said to them: "Permit us time for two raka'ats (units) of prayer if you can." They were permitted. They said the desired prayer, not taking much time and saying: "We could have spent longer time in our prayer but we did not like to be misunderstood that it was out of fear of death." They hard-hearted tyrants, put them on the cross and asked the lance bearers to keep piercing every part of their body constantly.

How firm was their belief in Islam and Pleasure of Allah and eternal bliss in life to come can be inquired by the fact that they patiently persevered with all sorts of calamites without complaint!


One of the spear-bearing tyrants asked him after giving Khubaib a painful prick: "At this stage you too must be wishing all this for Muhammad and your own redemption." Khubaib replied in a passionate tone: "By Allah I would not like that even a thorn may prick him for my deliverance.

He also recited some lyrics of his depicting the position of a true Muslim. Last of all he prayed to Allah that he had conveyed the Message of His Faith to these people and entreat Thee that Thy Apostle may be informed of our plight and the beastly treatment of the pagan opponents.


Abu Bara' 'Amir also played the same trick, the same dirty game. He came to the


 [next] Prophet (P.B.U.H.) and requested him for the services of some preachers of Islam for the education and guidance of Najd. He wanted to take them with him. 'Amir's nephew was the ruler of Najd. 'Amir had given assurance of protection to them. The Prophet assigned this duty to Munzir bin 'Amr Ansari at the head of seventy others, all well versed, select in religious knowledge. When they reached Bi'r-Mannah, the homeland of bani 'Amir, Haram bin Malham was deputed to see Tufail the ruler with the letter of the Prophet. This herald was killed by the ruler. He was pierced with a spear going from the back through the chest. Falling on the ground he had proclaimed his view of life and wealth, uttering: "By the Lord of Ka'bah. I have achieved felicity. "

These words of the dying person had such a magical effect on the murderer that he went to the Prophet and embraced Islam. The ruler got the rest also killed. Ka’b bin Zaid saved his life getting behind those being killed and getting back he informed the Prophet of what had happened.


In the 8th year after Hijrah, the Muslims had to besiege Makkah during the month of Ramadan under an emergency. The reason behind it was that one of the ' terms of Hudaibiyah Treaty was that:

For ten years there will be no war. The communities wishing to ally with the Prophet's community may do so and others who prefer to join Quraysh are free to do so. So Banu Khuza'ah allied with the Prophet and Banu Kananeh went with the Quraysh. Hardly two years, had elapsed when Banu Kananah attaked Banu Khuza'ah and the Quraysh too came to their aid with arms.

'Akramah bin Abu Jahl, Suhail bin 'Amr (he had signed the treaty), Safwan bin Umayyah (the well-known elite of the Quraysh with their followers, all under cover fought against Banu Khuza'ah.

These people (Khuza'ah) requested for clemency, took refuge in Ka'bah as the safest asylum, but they were mercilessly put to the sword. When these oppressed people appealed to them for mercy in the name of Allah (For Allah's sake) they, (the Makkan pagans) most blasphemously turned on them with loud proclamations of "Allah is nobody today (-is mere nothing)."


 [next] Forty of them that had somehow escaped the blood thirsty swords of Banu Kananah and Quraysh came to the Prophet with their tale of woes. For reasons of 1. Abiding by the terms of treaty 2. Re-dressal of grievance with full justice 3. Future protection of allies and tribes bound by treaty. The Prophet was forced by the demands of justice and fair play, to take immediate strongest action against the offenders, he, like the previous emergency of Badr (in the month of Ramadan) started with a ten thousand strong force for Makkah also in the month of fasting. They had hardly covered two days’ journey when Abu SufYan AlHarith bin Abd-al-Muttalib and Abd-Allah bin Abu Umayyah met him on the way. They were men who had tormented the Prophet very much and had left no stone unturned in wiping out Islam. The Prophet sighting them turned his face in the other direction. Umm-e-Salmah submitted that Abu SufYan was his first cousin and AbdAllah is also the first cousin, the son of 'Atikah, his real paternal aunt. Such close relations should not remain deprived of merciful affection.

At the instance of 'Ali (R) they came to the Prophet and asked for his forgiveness in the words of the erring brothers of Yusuf (P.B.U.H.)

By Allah! Indeed, has AlIah preferred thee above as, and we certainly been guilty of sin -Q. XII:91 The Apostle of Allah said in reply:

This day, let no reproach be (cast) on you Allah will forgive you. And He is the Most Merciful of those who show mercy! - Al Quran XII: 92.

The Apostle of Allah wished to take the Makkans by surprise. (They should not get wind of his arrival. And so it did come to pass that when he with his companions had camped outside Makkah and to strike terror in their hearts he had ordered lighting of fires not only for cooking their food but also big fires to make the mountain side ablaze. The thousands of these fires gave the Makkans an idea of their helplessness and not to even think of disturbing peace by taking to arms. The Apostle of Allah, Mercy for mankind had aimed at a bloodless victory, an entirely peaceful revolution.


The next morning the Apostle of Allah ordered the army to enter the town by different routes and observe strictly the following rules:

1. Whoever throws away his arms should not be killed.

2. One entering Ka'bah should also be spared.



3. One confining himself to his house should not be pursued.

4. Whoever chooses Ab u Sufyan's house for safety should be left alone.

5. And so also those entering the house of Hakeem bin Hizam

6. Those absconding should not be followed to be brought back.

7. The wounded and the disabled shall not be killed either, nor

8. The captives should be treated as free person for reckoning

The only contingent that entered the town under the command of Khalid bin Waleed experienced some resistance but the Makkans to their heels. The others entered without the least resistance. In the confrontation two Muslims and 28 opponents lost their lives. When on 20th Ramadan, the chosen Apostle of Allah entered Makkah, his head was bowed and he was reciting Surah Al Fatah (Q. XLVIII) and mounted on a camel was going to the House of AlIah' when riding this camel along with him was Osamah (R) son of Zaid (R) his freed slave. Once there he cleansed the house of Allah of the pollution of all sorts of idols 360 in number. He was bringing down each one of them with the end of his bow or his stick and was reciting the Quranic verses:

1. Truth has (now) arrived and falsehood perished: for falsehood is (by its nature) bound to perish. -Q. XVII: 81. 2. The truth has arrived, and falsehood showeth not its face and will not return. - Al Quran XXXIV :49

After this iconoclastic activity was over, he called 'Uthman bin Abi Talha. His family had been the bearer of the keys of Ka'bah since long. During the early days of his prophethood the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) had asked him (Uthman) to open the Ka'bah and he had refused to oblige. And the Apostle of Allah had prophesied: "All right, you will see on some future day that these keys will be in my hand and I shall entrust them to whomsoever I like." And 'Uthman had asked him whether all the males of the Quraysh would have been brought low and annihilated. And the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) had replied: "No, they would be much more honored and dignified.

The Prophet taking the keys from him opened the door of Ka'bah and entering made every corner of it resound with loud cries of Allah-u-Akbar (Allah is the Greatest), and then in prayers of thanks laid his forehead on the ground as the most devout and


[next] grateful servant of Allah the Greatest and the Exalted in Might.

During this period all those elite of Makkah had come together who:

1. Had slain many Muslims or got them killed in other ways.

2. Had expelled hundreds of Muslims from their homes and hearths.

3. To destroy the Islamic Faith and wipe out Muslims had under taken journeys to Abyssinia. Syria, Najd and Yemen.

4. Who had not let the Muslims live in peace after they had left for (Madinah) three hundred miles off. All those who had done all in their power to annihilate their Muslim adversaries with the power of money, might, strategy and deceit, and for twenty-one years had made it their only concern.

The Apostle of Allah, mercy for Mankind, when he carne out after thanks giving for Allah's Graciousness, 'Abbas (R), his uncle, submitted that the key be now entrusted to Bani Hashim. But the Prophet did not agree with his suggestion saying: This is the day of generosity and one of gifts and donations. The calling 'Uthman he handed over the keys to him, saying: "Whoever tries to snatch them from you will be an Usurping tyrant."


After this act of great generosity to one who, in the light of his past conduct, hardly deserved it, he turned to the crowd of those tyrants, murderers and barbarous bereft of civility and sense of justice, who could go to any length in opposition. He addressed them thus:

"O ye the community of Quraysh! This day of days Allah has brought you down for your haughtiness based on Jahiliyah and pride of ancestry when the truth is: All of us are the progeny of Adam and Adam was fashioned out of clay. Then he recited the Quranic verse:

o mankind! We created you from a single (pair of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes that ye may know each other (not that you may despise each other). Verily the most honored of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you. (Q. XLlX: 13)


 [next] Then he said:

This day let no reproach be (cast) on you.

Allah will forgive you and He is the Most

Merciful of all those who show mercy. Al Quran XII: 92


Then the Apostle of Allah taking his seat at the Safa hill, took Bai'ah (oath of allegiance and fealty) from those corning to embrace Islam. On this occasion Umar Farooq (R) was presenting them one by one before the Prophet (P.B.U.H.). Those entering this contract (Bai'ah) had to affirm the following terms.

1. I shall not associate anyone with AlIah in His Person, Attributes, His worthiness of being worshipped and worthiness of being invoked for aid.

2. I shall not steal, fornicate (commit adultery). Commit unauthorized murder. neither be guilty of female infanticide, nor slander anyone.

3. I shall to the best of my ability obey the Apostle of Allah in all matters relating to Truth and Justice.

The women had, in addition to the above, were to affirm:

In mourning for the dead they will not slap their faces nor pinch them (with the nails of their fingers). Neither tear the hair of their heads nor tear their garments to pieces, nor wrap themselves in black clothes (as a sign of mourning even to the extent of a black band on the arm), nor yet sit over the graves in mourning.


The procedure adopted here was that the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) used to immerse his hand in a basin full of water and each pledging female individual would come and immerse her hand in the water after the Prophet had taken out his own hand. On other occasion in pledging loyalty to Islam (obedience to Allah and His Apostle (P.B.U.H.)) it was deemed sufficient to a verbal affirmation (without any symbolic formality).

The next day after the conquest of Makkah, the Prophet was circumambulating Ka'bah


[next] when Fudalah bin 'Umair intended to murder the Prophet. With this evil intent when he approached him, he said: "Is Fudalah coming?" FudaIah said: "Yes it is Fudalah." The Prophet asked him: "What were you intending to do a little earlier?" FudaIah said: "Nothing was remembering Allah." On hearing this (falsehood), the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) laughed and said to him: Make your peace with Allah (entreat Him to forgive you for your evil intent of a heinous crime and falsehood). And saying this he placed his hand on his (Fudalah's) chest.

Fudalah later stated: "With his hand on my chest I: had a strange experience of mind. After that no one was I so dear to me as Muhammad (P.B.U.H.)"

"From there I started for home. On the way I met my beloved girl, with whom I associated and passed my time. So she requested for a brief chat. She had an important thing to say to him.

I replied to her offer saying: "Allah and His Apostle prohibit such things." (this immediate change of heart on conversion is amazing indeed! And this is not an isolated example. The early Islamic history is replete with them).

Let us here mention briefly the incidents of forgiveness of certain specific heinous crimes of the outstanding enemies of Islam in Makkah on this occasion as an important part of Seerah.

As we have seen the fighting men had been ordered to desist from attacking and killing people (general Amnesty), except four men and two women who, due to the nature of their crimes were liable to Qisas or punishment like for like under the Divine Law.

It was proclaimed that they should be killed.

Out of the four men only Ibn Khalal was killed. He had embraced Islam but he had killed his slave for delay in preparing food for him. After this he had escaped, fleeing to Makkah. The other three, Ikramah bin Abu Jahl, Hiba bin-al-Aswad and Abd-Allah ibn Abi Sarah were left off.

I. Ikrama not only because of his alliance with his father Abu Jahl in atrocities against Islam, even armed struggles, he had recently against the allies of Muslims, banu Khuza'ah, he being the main culprit in the tribes’ annihilation.

2. Hibar had wounded Zainab, the daughter of the Prophet, with his spear causing


 [next] abortion and consequent death.

3. Abd-Allah ibn Sarah had given out that revelation (in fact) came to him and Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) on hearing from him get it set down in writing. Could these culprits expect mercy from any save the Mercy Mankind? Among the two women, the one guilty of intentional murder was killed under the Islamic law of 'Qisas', equal for equal.

Among those forgiven was Hindah, wife of Abu Sufyan. Mad with wild rage she had arranged murder by artifice of Hamzah the uncle of the Prophet, in a secret arrangement with Wahshi, and after his death, she came to the battle field, took out Hamza's liver, tried to chew it and mutilated his body cutting his nose and ears had made a wreath for herself to put it round her neck.

Wahshi too was forgiven who had killed Harnzah by deception and then had desecrated his dead body by mutilation together with Hindah.

So it is evident like broad day light that the army of Muhammad had not conquered Makkah but conquered the hearts of the Makkans, through the civility and unlimited mercy and forgiveness of Muhammad (P.B.U.H.).

After the bloodless conquests of Makkah and most of them embracing Islam, there was no question of taking possession of their goods as booty as customary in battles, the Muslims who had been robbed of everything they had here in Makkah had been taken by the pagans both forcibly and voluntarily (to remove the hitch in migration). It was all over now, some of them, however, claiming the houses they had left behind and now in possession of Makkans.

The Prophet (P.B.U.H.), however did not agree, meaning that whatever they had left in the way of Allah, they should not even think of getting back.


According to the revelation a little later, people entered Allah's religion in crowds after victory with the Help of Allah. (Q. CX: 1-2). There were several reasons for it:

1. Many tribes had alliances and pacts with the Quraysh and their entry to the fold of Islam would have meant violation of trust.


 [next] 2. Many tribes were too weak to act independently but were related to or allied with the Quraish. They feared severance of these relations and wrath and revenge of Quraysh which was too much for them.

3. There were some others who were waiting for the Muslims to dominate Quraysh which alone would be proof of their belonging to Allah's party, since through the centuries many attempts of powerful invaders had failed, bereft as they were of Allah's Help. Abraha Ashram, conqueror of Yemen, coming for mention in the Quran (companions of the Elephant-Q. CV: 1) was annihilated sixty-years before the conquest of Makkah (8 A.H.) by Allah's own forces, the natural agencies, having come with the intent of demolishing Ka'bah. There were some persons alive having witnessed it. So to some the Prophet's getting the better of his own people was the true criterion of his being a true Prophet of Allah and they were waiting for conquest of Makkah.

Therefore after the easy bloodless, perfectly peaceful takeover of Makkah the former pacts disappeared into this aid, the influence and pressure of the Quraysh was no more of any consequence, and Muslim's position as aided by Allah was also made clear to the doubters so far.

And lastly, the resistance to the preaching of Islam had dissipated. The preachers could preach freely and the listeners (audience) listened unhindered and without fear, the charm of the True Faith drew crowds automatically.


After the conquest of Makkah, Hawazin and Thaqif tribes having a common border with Makkans thought to themselves that if they were to defeat the Muslims, all the groves and other properties of the Makkans in Ta'if shall become theirs without any risk. And they shall have avenged for their iconoclasm.

They brought the Bani Madar and Bani Hilal tribes also to their side as allies and with an army off our thousand strong they started for Makkah, coming down in the valley known as Hunain. Under the advice of their chief, Malik bin 'Auf, they had also brought their women, children and cattle and other goods with them. The advantage of this measure pointed out by him had been that nobody could even think of desertion of all those to save his own life.


[next] On receiving this information, the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) who did not like to be engaged in a battle adjacent to Ka'bah and within the sacred precincts, also advanced towards the invading army.

An addition of two thousand fighting men comprising also the freshly converted to Islam aside the idolatrous allies under protection, thus making the Muslim army twelve thousand strong. They were feeling proud of their numerical strength to some extent and hence had become a little mindful of their usual alertness and precaution. It is borne out by the Quran:

And on the day of Hunain: behold! your great numbers elated you, but they awaited you naught: the land for all that it is wide, did constrain you, and you turned back in retreat. - Al Quran X: 25

The enemy lay in ambush in a narrow pass with a party of archers. When the advance guard of the Muslim army (comprising those devil-may-care-type of young men who were hardly armed or not, at least. The requisite arms) reached the enemy's range of shooting. They rained down so many arrows on them that they were forced to fly in panic. Only about a hundred on them that they were forced to fly in panic. Only about a hundred companions of the Prophet firmly held their positions in the battle field. The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) when he saw the enemy advancing and his own army running away for safety, displayed unique valor and perseverance. He got down his mule and said:

"I am a Prophet, there is not a shade of doubt about it I am the son of Abd-al-Muttalib."

What he meant to convey was that success or failure in an armed conflict was not the criterion of his position as a true apostle of Allah. Rather it lay in his own identity and personality.

At this stage of confusion, Abbas (R), the uncle of the Prophet, started calling them by their distinguishing features as Muhajirs (immigrants) and Ansar (the helpers) and they responded to this call like a flight of pigeons without delay. Now the army was arranged in a totally different order, with muhajirs and Ansar in the forefront. With the renewed attack in this order, the enemy took to flight, getting divided into two groups:

1. The leader of this group, Malik bin 'Auf with this fighting men took refuge in the fort at Ta'if.


[next] 2. The other group comprising their women and children along with their goods went into concealment in the Autas gorge. The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) ordered siege of the Ta'if fort, and to take vigilant care of Autas gorge he appointed Abu 'Amir Ash'ari, who on getting there took possession of the families and goods of the enemy. When the Prophet learnt about performance of Abu 'Amir at Autas, he ordered lifting siege of the Ta'if Fort, since they were faced with the calamity of losing their most precious assets, wives, children and goods. There were 24,000 camels, 40 thousand goats, four thousand o-oqiah (about 420 kilogram) silver and six thousand women and children in all.

The Prophet had stayed very close to the battle field, where six chiefs of the Hawazin tribe came to him appealing for mercy. Some of these men were those who had rained stones on him when he was visiting Ta'if on a preaching mission, and Zaid (R) had lifted him unconscious to carry him to safety.

The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) said to them: "Welcome! I had myself been waiting for you. Two weeks have elapsed and the booty has not yet been distributed. In consideration of your request I can release prisoners coming to my share and those of my family. And if there were Muhajirs and Ansar alone with me (as fighting men) I could consider their shares also. But as you can see for yourself, I have here with me even those who are yet unbelievers. So we will have to tackle this problem in this way: come to me tomorrow morning after the early morning prayer (Fajr) to present your request in the presence of the assembly of common people. Let us see if a solution can be found." He concluded saying: "choose for yourself your good or your families since the invading army cannot be reconciled to total deprivation. (They must get something as return for their (taking pains."

Next morning the same representatives presented themselves on the scene and in public gathering repeated their request for the release of their prisoners to the Prophet.


The Prophet of mercy said to them: I hereby release the prisoners, my own and those of Banu Abd-al-Muttalib free (without demanding any ransom for them). The Ansar and Muhajirin with one voice declared that they too were releasing those coming to their shares.

Now it came to Bani Saleem and Bani Fuzava. It was something strange to them that the invading enemy, luckily vanquished also, should be shown such mercy and generosity.


 [next] So they did not proclaim their prisoners released. The Prophet called them and after deliberation, 6 camels was settled as the equivalent of one prisoner and the Prophet paid it to them, and the remaining prisoners were also set free. He also donated one changes of clothes to all the prisoners at parting time.


Among these prisoners was also Shima' bint Harith the daughter of the Prophet's wet nurse Halimah. The Prophet recognized this foster sister of his and spread out his sheet on the ground to sit on. He said to her: "It would be much better for you to stay here with me. However, you are perfectly free to go back home if you please. She wanted to return home and was sent away to her own people honorably.


The booty was distributed on the spot. The largest shares were awarded to those who had recently embraced Islam. The sincerest, Ansars, received nothing. He consoled the younger lot showing dissatisfaction saying would they not be pleased taking him with them while others take some petty goods. They were very much pleased. Some of them were moved to tears of joy on hearing these words from the Prophet (P.B.U.H.). It had afforded them much greater pleasure than those receiving booty.

Some poet has expressed the Prophet's generosity in the following verse:

To me Khaiber and Hunain stand witness (to the fact), That you most generously give away what you win through conquests.


Yehudi, as a matter of fact, should be the name of the offspring of Yehuda, the third sun of Yaqub (Jacob) only. But somehow the progeny of all the twelve sons of Jacob came to be called by this name and now the Israelites are usually termed Yahudi or Jews a denomination which due to their transgression and evil traits of character had become the most detestable among the nations of the world. They, in their vain glory and self-conceit, claim to be the chosen of God, worthy of exaltation and rule over the rest of the world. Here and in eternal bliss Hereafter when the rest of humanity is fit only to be the fuel of Fire of Hell, the horrible pit. Of all that tall talk and braggadocio only this


 [next] much is true that they are the progeny of a long line of Prophets and so many high ranking prophets were raised from them through the ages and they were really a fine people chosen by Allah in a particular period for a sacred mission borne out by the Quran also and for some time they proved worthy of it too, "But long ages passed over them and their hearts grew hard" (Q. LVII: J6) and through shameful breach solemn covenants, persecuting their prophets, even killing them, calling Allah "close fisted" "Allah is indigent and we are rich", saying to Moses, their great benefactor, "Go you and your Lord and fight, we are sitting here," and many worse blasphemies which brought Allah's wrath and they were deposed from leadership of humanity, cursed and dispersed.

Their own and last of the Israeli line of prophets, 'Isa (P.B.u.H.), kind-hearted as he was, but witnessing their despicable conduct, had called them (venomous) vipers and their progeny and had also prophesied that the kingdom of God (leadership and guidance of mankind) shall be taken away from them and entrusted to another community that may make it blossom, coming into full bloom.

When the appointed time for this prophecy to come true (materialize) and Muhammad the Apostle of Allah, Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) (called Ahmad in another prophecy by 'Isa the son of Mary:

'O children of Israel! I am the messenger of Allah (sent) to you confirming the Turat (which came) before me and giving glad tidings of a messenger to come after me, whose name shall be Ahmad. - Al Quran LXI: 6),

began preaching his excellent teachings, the Jews finding them conflicting with their self-devised independent views about 'Isa whom they almost handed over to the Roman governor to be crucified, they were very much annoyed and in their rage finally decided to vex, tyrannize and get him out of their way if possible as they had earlier done with his predecessor 'Isa ibn-Maryam.

Although the Jews in the very first year of migration had entered an agreement of peace for all the communities of madinah. Yet their inherent evil nature and diseased mentality could not remain hidden for long and eighteen months after signing the contract they had entered with the Prophet and the Muslim community mischiefs one after the other were witnessed.



[next] When the Muslims with the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) had gone to Badr, a Muslim woman went one day to the locality of Banu Qainuqa' to sell milk. Some Jews played

a mischief and stripped her in the market place. Hearing the screams of the woman, a Muslim rushed to the scene and in a rage murdered the mischief mongering culprit, Jew. The Jews gathered together on the spot of murder and they killed the Muslim creating a tumult. On his return from Badr, the Prophet called the Jews to enquire about this riot. They returned the signed copy of agreement with the Prophet to him and the Muslims and appeared bent on a war against the Muslims.

Things had now come to an insurrection and the Jews were punished in as much as forcing them to leave Madinah and go to Khaibar to settle down.


As stated earlier the Quraysh had written to the unbelievers of Madinah after migration to fight against the Prophet but due to the sagacity and clever handling of the situation it carne to naught. After defeat at Badr they again wrote, but this time to the Jews of Madinah:

"You are a powerful community, economically well off, in possessions of properties and forts. Fight against Muhammad or else we shall do such and such with you, taking off even the ornaments adorning the ankles of your women." On receipt of this letter, their Sanu Nadir tribe was determined on violation of the agreement with the Prophet as well as deceitfully harm him.

It was in 4 A.H. that the Prophet went to the locality of Banu Nadir to collect a national subscription (it was probably to pay the blood money in connection with a murder). They seated him beneath a wall and planned that (the accursed) Ibn Hajash going upon the wall would let fall a heavy stone over him and thus end his life.

After sitting there for some time he was informed by supernatural means (Allah's own special agencies) of the impending danger and left the place in time.

After sitting there for some time he was informed by super natural means (Al1ah's own special agencies) of the impending danger and left the place in time.


[next] At last Banu Nadir were punished with banishment from Madinah to get settled at Khaiber. They loaded all their goods, even the doors and windows of their houses they had themselves razed to the ground, on six hundred camels and settled in Khaiber.


The outstanding feature of the 5th year A.H. is battle of Ahzab. Sanu Nadhir did not sit idle even after their banishment to Khaiber. They resolved to make a united effort for the total annihilation of the Muslims, involving all the tribes and religions of Arabia. They should participate with their select seasoned swordsmen. They selected twenty chiefs to induce all the tribes of Arabia to come together in a aggressive war against the Muslims. Their efforts were fruitful. In the month of Ziqa'dah 5 AH. a formidable army of ten thousand strong including idolaters and Jews with some others, invaded Madinah. The Quan calls it the Battle of Ahzab (the confederates).

I. Quraish, Banu Kananah, under the command of Sufyan bin Harb

2. Bani Fazarah under the command of 'Uqbah bin Husain 3. Bani Murrah under the command of Harith bin 'Auf

4. Bani Ashja' and Najdis commanded by Mas'ood bin Dakheelah When the Muslim found themselves incapable of facing them in the open, they acted at the instance of Salman Farsi's (of Persia or Iran), an outstanding companion of the Prophet, they decided to dig a trench (for the first time in Arabia) and started work on it with great enthusiasm. Each team of ten persons had dugged out forty yards. While at it the companions recited the following verse:

We are those who have taken an oath of fealty

At the hands of Muhammad to adhere to Islam forever The Prophet himself helped the companions in the digging operations, breaking hard rock and removal of earth. In this strenuous labor his chest was covered with dust. He undertook work where others failed.

The battle worthy Muslims were three thousand in all. They came to the battle field in such a manner that the trench was in front of them and Sala' mount at the back. Banu Quraizah the Jewish tribe, resident in Madillah and under obligation as signatories of


 [next] the agreement that we can call Madinah charter of Human Rights, the chief of the Banu Nadir, Hai bin Akhtab visited them in the darkness of the night and insisting on them to violate the agreement made them join the invading bordes. The Prophet repeatedly sent his heralds to them to bring them round and desisting from breach of faith, but they flatly refused to listen to them saying: Who is Muhammad to us that we should listen to him? We are not bound to him by any bond whatsoever.

After that Banu Quraizah started disturbing the peace of the town. The lives, honor and property of Muslim women and children was imperiled. In this helpless situation a detachment from this none too big a number had to be sent back to Madinah to guard it, and maintain peace if breach was wickedly created by the Jews. Banu Quraizah were under the impression that the ferocious attack of ten thousand from outside and we inside the town creating lawlessness, can make life miserable for Muslim, they will be totally wiped out leaving no trace behind.

Since the Prophet was by nature peace-loving and anti-war, he held consultation with the companions on an offer of peace on the term of payment of one third of their produce (of duties). But the Ansar preferred war. Sa'd bin Mu'az (R) and S'ad bin 'Ubadah (R) speaking on the resolution submitted: When we were polytheists and idolaters, we never gave them anything (under pressure). Now that Allah has honored us with Islam, how can we give them one third of our produce. For them we have nothing but our swords.

The invading army besieged them (Muslims) for twenty days. A few occasional single handed combats also were witnessed. 'Umar bin Abdand who boasted of equality with thousand men in combat was killed easily by 'Ali Murtza (R) in one such single combat. And Naufal bin Abd-Allah bin Mughira too was killed in an encounter. The Makkans offered ten thousand dirhams for the dead body of Naufal. The Prophet told his men to hand over the dead body. Nothing in return was needed.

When they could not confront Muslims during this period of siege, they were dejected and left one-night bag and baggage surely grieved.


After getting rid of this troublesome affair, the Prophet called Banu Quraizah to explain their position face to face (show cause for their dastardly conduct). Now Banu Quraizah in a state of self-imposed siege in their fort weefully prepared for a trial of strength. At


[next] this stage the Muslims came to know that the Banu Nadir chief Hai bin Akhtab was still with them in the fort.

This role of a trouble maker was not the first instance on the part of Banu Quraizah. At the time of Badr they had strengthened the position of Quraysh with war material and arms. But then the kind hearted Prophet CP.B.U.H) forgiven them.

Now that they had taken refuge in their fort the Muslims had no other cause left open to them but to have a go at them. They were factually besieged now by an invading army in zi-al-Hiijah, which lasted 25 days. The siege now becoming intolerable and sick of it they contacted the Muslims of Aus tribe with whom they were on terms of friendship since long and reconciled the Prophet to agree to the arbitration of SaId bin Mu'az (Aus chief) in their (Banu Quraizah's) affair and his arbitration should be acceptable to him.

Banu Quraizah came out of the fort and their case was entrusted to SaId bin Mu'az. What high hopes Aus and Banu Quraizah might have been nursing after Mu'az was accepted arbiter by both the parties? But this manly arbiter and God fearing Muslim after necessary investigations gave the following verdict:

I. The combat-worthy males of Banu Quraizah be put to sword.

2. Women and children be taken as prisoner of war (slave).

3. Their goods be divided as booty. In the materialization of this arbitration what we learn from a report in Bukhari by Abu Sa'eed Khudri, that able bodied combat-worthy men were killed. But the tradition has nothing to say about the women and children being taken as prisoners (slaves). It must also be kept in mind that the arbiter of their own choice, had pronounced for them the same punishment which they inflicted on their criminals and prescribed by their Shari'ah.

We have reasons to believe and precedents to show that had Banu Quraizah left their case in the hands of the Prophet the greatest punishment that would have been pronounced could be their banishment from Madinah to settle in Khaiber. The cases of Banu Qainuqa' and Banu Nadir are two precedents before us. The Prophet had mercifully exempted some of them (Banu Quraizah) also from the pronounced punishment. For example, Zuhair (Jew) had received pardon from him with wife, children and his goods. And Rifa'ah (Jew) had also been spared his life.




With Christians too the Prophet's dealings were based on kindness. A couple of rulers of their countries nursed feelings of malice and animosity against him, but the commonality or the majority of people had nothing to do with it. Going in details in our study reveals the fact that a battle was fought against one Christian king and a long and tedious journey undertaken under the most trying condition of hot weather, scarcity of provisions and other resources, due to a rumor of invasion by a Christian monarch.


Mautah was a town in Syria. The chief of this town Sharjeel bin 'Amr Ghassani had killed the messenger of the Prophet, Harith bin 'Umair Azdi, bearing a letter calling him to Islam. This incident had endangered the lives of the ambassadors and something had to be done as deterrent to it. So the Prophet sent out an army of three thousand armed men. This petty ruler did not even apologize for his barbarity. Rather he had the audacity to confront the challenger. Heraclitus, the emperor, happened to be there on that occasion, stationed with an army of a hundred thousand men in Moab. The Arabian desert tribes Lakhim, Jazan, Bahram, Bili Qais, numbering a hundred thousand had gathered there on the occasion of the christian kings’ arrival there. So the Ghassari ruler called a large contingent to the king's army as well as the tribal force as reinforcement to that under his own command and he finally headed an army of about a hundred thousand. The Muslims had no option but to face the enemy, and Zaid bin Harithah (R) brought up under the patronage of the Prophet, at the head of the Muslim army, was killed in the first bout. Ja'far, Tayyar

(R) the Prophet's cousin and Abd-Allah bin Rawahah (R) a senior companion also fell to the sword of the enemy one after the other as commanders. Then Khalid bin Waleed (R) a military genius came forward to command his men and with rare marvelous strategic retreat for reorganization gave the enemy a wrong impression, thus compelling a much superior foe about forty times as strong to flee. It is reported that 9 swords were broken in the hand of Khalid bin Waleed. The Prophet had informed the companions of the dreadful loss of three valuable lives and the happy final of the battle in far off Madinah through divination. And it was after this battle that on Khalid (R) was conferred the title Saif-Allah (the Sword of Allah).



 [next] A caravan arrived from Syria, and mentioned the preparations of Caesa'rs (the Roman emperor's) armies for invading Madinah. The Arabian Christian tribes Lakhm, lazan, 'Amilah, Ghassan and others are also with them. It appears they want to avenge themselves for their defeat at Mantah.

The Prophet considered it in the fitness of things to detain the invading army before its entry into Arabia to prevent internal disturbances and uprisings of the vanquished forces. This confrontation was against the armies of a kingdom ruling' over half the then known world and had recently brought and adversary of the stature of Iran to disgrace.

The Muslims were resource less. The journey was long and tedious. The well-known summer heat of Arabia was at its height. The date palm crop of Madinah was ready to be collected and enjoyed in the cool shades of the homes and groves.

The Prophet announced a general campaign for collection of war fund.

Uthman (R) donated 900 camels, 100 horses and one thousand dinars in cash as his contribution to war fund, and was honoured with the title of 'Mujahhiz laish 'Usr (Provider of the anny of distress). Abd-al-Rahman

(R) another opulent business man, came forward with forty thousand dirhams as his share of contributions. What Abu Bakr Siddiq (R) brought, though not that much in value was yet the entire wherewithal of his family. Leaving for them, as he owned on being questioned, the love ofAllah and his Apostle. Abu Aqeel Ansari donated two Sa' about four kilogram dates all that he could afford, being half of his total wages for a night hard labour of irrigation for somebody, leaving the other half for the sustenance of his family costly. The Prophet had it spread over the entire heap of costly donations. (The hypocrites had laughed at it).

In short, every companion did all in his power to be as sincere and generous as he could. About 83 Muslims (behaves only out wardly) did not tum up from their homes under various protests. Abd-Allah bin Ubai bin Sallul had assured them that Muhammad and his companions shall not come back to Madinah from this expedition Caesar will send them out as prisoners to various countries under his rule.

The Apostle of Allah started for Tabuk with thirty thousand men in his following.


[next] Saba' bin 'Arfazah his deputy in Madinah and to 'Ali Murtaza (R) he assigned the duty of looking after the needs of his family. Conveyance (mounts) was the most acute problem for this expedition. One camel for 18 persons to ride by turns. Scarcity of food forced them at time to subsist on green leaves like herbivorous animals which caused inflammation of lips. Water was prominent by its absence at places on the way. To further reduce the number of mounts, they had at time to slaughter the camels for food and used the water preserved by camels in their digestive system was used for drinking to save lives.

Patiently persevering in putting up with all these hardships they at last arrived at Tabuk.

They were yet on the way to Tabuk when they were overtaken by 'Ali (R). The hypocrites used to chide him for being left behind. Some attributed it to his incapability, others ascribed it to merciful concession. By these insulting remarks 'Ali (R) was roused to action and cutting short the period of rest in this journey under the scorching heat, he came! o the Prophet at last, with his feet swollen and soles blistered. The Prophet said to him by way of consolation: "Ali (R)! you are not satisfied that you are to me as Haroon was to Moses (associate and helper in discharging the duties of prophetic mission) but there is no prophet to follow me. On hearing this heartening remark from the Prophet, 'Ali (R) left for Madinah cheerfully. The Prophet stayed at Tabuk for a month. The Syrians were so intimidated by this move that they gave up the idea of invading Arabia for the time being and put it off for some time after the passing away of the Apostle of Allah.

While at Tabuk, the Prophet had delivered a brief but very comprehensive sermon after prayer:

1. Most outstanding in Truth is the Book of Allah (The Quran).

2. Among words the most trustworthy is the word of Taqwa (piety).

3. The most superior among millats (religious communities) is that of Ibrahim (P.B.U.H.)

4. The way (Sunnah) of Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) is the best of all ways.

5. Remembrance of Allah is the most elevated and superior to all other words.

6. The best and cleanest statement, speech, information of true facts is the Quran.


 [next] 7. The best performances are those of firm resolution.

8. The worst of affairs is an innovation.

9. The best instruction and practical example is that of the prophets.

10. The death of martyr is the best type of all other types of deaths.

11. The worst blindness is the misguidance after guidance.

12. Of the acts and deeds the one that is beneficial is the best.

13. The best course or practice is that people can easily follow.

14. The worst blindness is the blindness of heart.

15. The upper hand (giver) is superior to the lower (at the receiving end)

16. The little goods that suffices is better than the plentiful that leads to negligence.

17. The worst repentance is that which comes in death pangs.

18. The worst remorse is that of the Day of reckoning.

19. Some people attend Friday congregation but their hearts are elsewhere.

20. And among them there are men who remember Allah once in a, while.

21. The worst sin is a lying tongue.

22. The greatest affluence is the affluence adequacy of psyche or mind.

23. The best of provisions is that of Taqwa (piety).

24. The greatest wisdom lies in fear of God.

25. The best thing to impress upon the mind is conviction.

26. Creating or giving way to doubts is an off shoot of unbelief.

27. Weeping with wailing is an act of Jahiliyah (ignorance or un-Islam).

28. Thieving is provision (deed) for Hell.


 [next] 29. To be dead drunk is casting oneself in Fire (of Hell). 30. Poetization or versification (except for a noble cause) is the affair of Iblis (Satan).

31. And Liquor (drinking) is involvement in all other sins.

32. The worst sustenance is devouring the property of an orphan.

33. Felicitous (Lucky) is he who takes a lesson from others.

34. Most unlucky (wretched) is he who is born unlucky.

35. The best asset of deeds is their happy end.

36. The worst dream is a false one (Falsification of one's own eyes).

37. And that which is surely going to happen is close at hand (the Last Day)

38. To abuse (to revile) a believer is transgression.

39. And to murder him is unbelief

40. And to eat his flesh (back-biting) is dis-obedience to Allah.

41. The goods of a believer is prohibited to another as his brother's blood.

42. Whoever poses as independent of Allah, Allah falsifies him.

43. Whoever keeps hidden the evils to another, Allah covers his faults.

44. He who forgives is forgiven.

45. Whoever suppresses one's anger is rewarded by Allah.

46. He who patiently perseveres with a loss, is rewarded by Allah.

47. Whoever spreads slander Allah brings him to general ignominy.

49. He who disobeys Allah, He punishes him severely.

50. Then seeking Allah's forgiveness, he concluded this sermon.



 [next] During the period of stay at Tabuk death occured of the cmpanion Zu-al-Bajadin. The statement of this incident reveals how kindly and benignly the Prophet treated the destitute and sincere companions.

His name was Abd-Allah. Orphaned in childhood was brought up by his uncle. When he grew up, this uncle of his, gifting him with camels, goats and slave had relieved him of destitution. Abd-Allah heard about Islam and felt a hidden desire and taste for unity of Allah. But he was mighty afraid of his benefactor (uncle) that he could not embrace Islam. However, when the Prophet had returned to Madinah after the conquest of Makkah, Abd-Allah said to his uncle: "My dear uncle! How long have I been waiting for your embracing Islam? But I have noticed no change in your mode of thought. I cannot trust my term of life any longer. Kindly permit me to enter the fold of Islam.

His uncle said to him in reply: "If you are bent on entering the Faith of Muhammad, I shall take away everything from you. Not a sheet or something to hide your nakedness I am going to leave on you."

Abd-Allah said respectfully: Uncle! I must become a Muslim at all costs, and shall accept obedience to the Prophet. I am sick of polytheism and idolatry. Now do as you please, and whatever I have in my possession you can take it. I am very much alive to the fact that these trappings and wherewithal must be left behind on departing from this world. So I cannot remain deprived of the True Faith for the sake of this material goods."

Abd-Allah then discarded even the clothes covering his nakedness and went to her mother in this disgraceful position. His mother was surprised and Abd-Allah told her. I have become a believer, a strict Unitarian. To cover my nakedness, I need covering. Kindly give me something for this purpose. His mother gave him a blanket. Abd Allah tore it in two parts, with one he covered the lower part of his body and the other half he used as sheet for the upper half, and started for Madinah. Early in the morning he arrived at the Prophet's (P.B.U.H.) mosque and with back to the wall he sat there. When the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) came to the mosque, he enquired of him about the purpose of his arrival there. To his queries he replied that: "My name is Abd-'Uzza. I am an outsider and a destitute. I love you O Apostle of Allah! and have come here looking for Guidance."


[next] The Prophet said to him: your name is Abd-Allah and Zu-al-Bajadin your title. Stay close to us and live in the mosque itself Abd-Allah joined the group known as Ashab Suffah . He learnt to recite Quran from the Prophet and then recited it with zeal and fondness, very gleefully.

Once 'Umar Faruq (R) irked by his loud recitation remarked: "People here are praying and this Bedouin Arab is reciting Quran so loudly (as to divert the attention of men in their prayer). The Prophet said to him: "'Umar! let him have his own way. He has come here leaving behind everything he had in the world for the sake of Allah and his Apostle."

"Hearing of the preparations for the battle of Tabuk, he too came to the Prophet and requested him to pray for him (Abd-Allah) also to be martyred in the way of Allah"

The Prophet directed him to bring a piece of bark from some tree. When he brought it, the Prophet attached it (with string) to his arm, and said: 0 Allah! forbid his blood to the unbelievers. Abdullah said: " O Apostle of Allah! I am longing for martyrdom." The Prophet explained it to him: "When you came out with the intent of fighting in the way of Allah, even if you die of fever, you are a martyr. "

On arrival at Tabuk exactly this happened in his case. He developed fever and that ended his life. Bilal bin Harith Mazanj has reported that he had witnessed the burial of Abdullah.

In the darkness of the night Bilal (R) was holding a lamp in his hand. Abu Bakr (R) and 'Umar (R) were pulling him in the grave. The Apostle of Allah too had discarded into his grave and was instructing them Abu Bakr (R) and 'Umar (R): " Have regard for (the position of) your brother." The Prophet put the bricks on his grave after burial and then prayed thus:

"O my Lord! I have been pleased with him until this evening. Please be pleased with him.

"Ibn Masood (R) had said: "Oh, how I wish I had been Laid in that grave."

The Prophet returned to Madinah safe and sound.

The hypocrites of Madinah who had taken for granted that Muhammad and his


 [next] companions must have been taken prisoners and banished to far off islands and shall never come back, were remorseful now, and put up various false excuse, for not accompanying the Prophet (P.B. U.H.) on this expedition. He neither cross questioned nor showed his displeasure for their dastardly conduct, since he knew it was no use. They could not be reformed. However, he took serious notice of three sincere companions of his who had somehow due to laziness or infinity of resolution failed to accompany him and could not overtake him a few days later. They like true Muslims owned their weakness and default, and as such had to undergo a hard trial One of them Ka'b (R) bin Malik's story as related by him runs like this:


My staying at home on this occasion was but a trial. I had neither any intention to absent myself nor any hindrance prevented me from joining the expedition a little later, overtaking at a faster pace. My financial condition was better than ever. I had also purchased two camels for this journey, when as a matter of fact I never had had two camels at a time before this. Others were making preparation as they ought to have done on a war footing, and I had no doubt in my mind about my own preparation, thinking to myself that whenever they started I shall be with them. The day the Islamic army marched out of Madinah, I had some private business to look to. I said to myself I shall overtake it soon enough. Two to three days passed in a wavering attitude and laziness I should say. By now the expeditionary force had gone so far that it was difficult to overtake it. I was really shocked at what had accidentally happened.

One day on coming out of the house, I met no man other than the hypocrites who were adepts at inventing false excuses, or some disabled person. This fact set my mind on fire. These days passed one by one finding me ill at ease until the day dawned when the Apostle of Allah returned from this expedition. I was in great confusion as to what to do, what to say and how to save myself from the righteous anger and punishment of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.). People suggested to me various excuses to save my skin. But I resolved that only Truth can deliver me from harm. At last I presented myself before the Apostle of Allah. He looked at me and smiled. His smile had a shade of frown in it. This attitude of his bewildered me.

The Prophet questioned me: "Ka'b! what prevented you from joining us? Were you wanting in the means for the journey?" I submitted: "O Apostle of Allah (P.B.U.H.)! I had everything for it. My psyche made me negligent and laziness overcame my intent and resolve. Satan attacked me and involved me in this deprivation and lonesomeness." The Apostle of Allah (P.B.U.H.) said to me: "Stay in your house and wait for the Divine Decree."


[next] Some people tried to appear wiser saying: "See what you have gained. If you too had put up some excuse, the outcome would have been different." I told them that revelation would have exposed me and I would have been nowhere then. The dealing is not with a worldly party or person. We are dealing here with the Apostle of Allah. I enquired whether I was alone guilty of this shortcoming or there are some others also in the line. They told me that Hilal bin Umayyah and Murarah bin Rabi' are two other person standing on the same ground with me. On hearing it from them I had some consolation that two other righteous persons are in grief like me. I was not all alone.

After some time, the Apostle of Allah (P.B.U.H.) ordered the Muslim Community to boycott us not to associate with us in any other way. Now life and the world around us appeared to be a burden, a curse. Hilal and Murarah did not come out of their houses during this period, since they were old and decrepit. I was young and daring and used to go .out of the house to the mosque of the Prophet and after the prayer was over, sat in a comer of the mosque.

The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) looked at me with affection but only through side glances, observing my affliction and dejection. But when I raised my eyes to look at him, he avoided it, looking the other way.

As for the Muslim brethren they neither spoke to me nor even answer my greetings. One day I crossed over the limits of the town in a very aggrieved state of mind. Abu Qatadah, my paternal cousin was on very good terms of love and intimacy with me, was in his grove, supervising some building construction. I greeted him but he did not oblige me and turned his face in the opposite direction. I said to him, Abu Qatadah! you know very well that I love Allah and His Apostle and not in the least affected with hypocrisy and polytheism. How is it then that you do not speak to me? Even then he did not answer. After I had repeated my query thrice, my cousin said only this: "Allah and His Apostle know better." I was moved to tears (on thus being slighted by one near and dear, and I wept grievously enough. I returned to Madinah town proper where a Christian met me. He had been looking for me, and people told him (pointing to me) that I was the person he was looking for. He had a letter from the king of Ghassan, addressed to me. It read:

"It has come to our knowledge that your master is annoyed with you. You have been denied his presence. And other people too are distressing you. We are well aware of your position and you are not a person who can be treated denigratingly. On reading this letter come to me and see for yourself what honors are awaiting you here with me."


 [next] After perusal of this letter I said to myself. "What a calamity? Can a worse misfortune be imagined? A Christian aspiring to get advantage over me and my Faith and inviting me to unbelief. This increased my grief ten times over. That royal epistle I cast into the fire in the presence of the messenger and told him in very clear terms:

Go and tell him that "My master's displeasure and indifference is much better and pleasant to me than your kindest regards and attention. "

When I got home I found a person from the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) with the instructions to me to keep away from my wife. Seeking further details, I asked him whether it was an instruction to divorce her or just living apart, he said, "No, not divorce but only separate living." On hearing this order, I sent my wife to her own people. I came to know that Hilal and Murarah had received the same instructions. Hilal's wife saw the Prophet in this connection and told him that Hilal was old and debilitated and had no servant either to lookafter his needs. If he kindly permitted, she may go on looking after him. The Prophet permitting service excluded partnership in bed. She said to him: "O Apostle of Allah! Hilal has been reduced by his sorrow and grief to a state where no other notion (desire for sex) disturbs him."

Now, some people suggested to me also that I should take the Prophet's permission for that much service by my wife. But I refused on the ground that I was hale and hearty and could look after myself unaided and may not be granted permission.

In this way passed fifty days of distress and mental anguish. One night as I was lying in bed upstairs, much perturbed and lamenting over my plight, when from the mount Salah', close to my house, rose the voice of Abu Bakr (R) proclaiming: "Congratulations to Ka'b (R) that his penitence has been accepted." On hearing this proclamation, my relatives and friends rushed to congratulate me that a sincere person has been honored by Allah in the acceptance of his penitence. I brought my forehead to the ground in prostration before Allah in gratitude for His Mercy and Grace. And then immediately hastened to see the Prophet (P.B.U.H.)

The Prophet was sitting in the assembly of Muhajirs and Ansar. The former congratulated me and the latter kept quiet. Coming forward I greeted the Prophet and


 [next] the assemblage. His face was radiant like full moon. It was the usual feature that in moments of joy became all the more lustrous. He addressed me thus? "Congratulations Ka'b! for this most auspicious and blessed day of your life! Since your mother gave you birth, no such day has ever dawned in your life. Most welcome in our midst! your penitence has been honored by Allah, the Lord of the World Himself (you have been forgiven and honorably cleansed of the filth of negligence and lack of promptness in obedience).

I humbly submitted that in gratitude for this honour I donate all my worldly goods in the way of Allah." The Prophet did not agree. I said how about half of it?" He said, "No", "Let it be one third I proposed." He said, "Yes." One third is good enough. And even one third is too much."

Thank God that the Mischiefs, sedition and violence which the enemies of Islam and Muslim, had created through the years and which had vitiated the atmosphere so much that all the tribes of Arabic had become poisoned with the venom of revolt, terrorism and tyranny had finally come to an end. During the course of all these confrontations, the unparalleled generosity of the Apostle of Allah and his untold large-heartedness manifested itself so frequently and in such abundance that the humanity of later days learnt all the ethical principles of gallantry and warfare (changing barbarity of former days to civility mercy and generosity).

These were the inevitable wars in which the chosen Apostle of Allah and the Muslims under constraints for about seven years, participated in them. (They were actually thrust on them).

The Muslims are nowhere witnessed as the instigators in these wars. All of them without exception were fought in self-defense or to keep aloof from their mischief (rather wickedness). During the entire period of the Prophet's (P.B.U.H.) mission not a single soul was snuffed out because he was an idolater, a Christian or a Jew.

It had been very clearly brought out in the Quran that religious differences have existed before and shall go on in future also. So compulsion in the matter of religion is not permissible. The following Quranic verses bear ample testimony to this fact:

1. let there be no compulsion in religion. Truth stands out clear from error: - Al Quran II: 256

2. If it had been thy Lord Will they would have all believed, all who are on earth! Will thou then compel mankind, against their will to believe! - Al Quran X: 99


 [next] 3. If thy Lord had so willed, He would have made mankind one people: but they will not cease to differ, except on whom thy Lord bestowed His Mercy and for this did He create them. - Al Quran XI: 118-119 4. It is true thou wilt riot be able to guide everyone thou loves, but Allah guides those whom He will and He knows best those who receive guidance. -AI Quran: XXVIII: 56

5. We know best what they say, and thou art not one to compel them by force. So admonish with the Quran such as fear My Warning. - Al Quran L: 45

6. Therefore do thou remind for thou art one to remind. Thou art not one to manage (their) affairs.


Before we close this chapter on wars it would be in the fitness of things to mention how the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) treated prisoners of war.

Before the last and final version of Islam brought by the Last and Final Prophet of Islam, all the nations and kingdoms of the world meted out such barbaric treatment to the prisoners of war mere mention of which makes the hair stand on end.

1. The treatment of the prisoners of war at the hands of the Prophet was merely of two kinds: (a) Release on payment of ransom (b) Granting their freedom without ransom The first ever prisoners came to the Muslims in the battle of Badr. They were worst enemies of Islam and Muslims. The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) first of all put it up before the companions as a consultative affair. In the Shura' (consultative body) there were two groups with conflicting opinions. In the first group Abu Bakr (R) was of the opinion that they should be released on payment of ransom. He had put forth two arguments in support of his opinion.

I. The ransom money will go to furnish us with the military equipment.

2. After obtaining freedom they may with Allah's Grace embrace Islam. The other group with 'Umar Faruq as their spokesman opined in favor of putting them to the sword. They argued like this:

1. They are the great leaders of unbelief and polytheism and deserve beheading.


[next] 2. Allah has given us victory over them and we must avenge Muslims. The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) agreed with Abu Bakr (R). Those who could not pay ransom, making the children of Ansar literate was decided as their ransom.

Whether Abu Bakr's thinking was right or 'Umar Faruq, is a futile discussion. Both offered arguments that were reasonable save in as much as Abu Bakr (R) when opining had not in his mind, the Quranic instruction in an earlier (Pre-Badr) Surah Muhammad (Q. XLVII: 4) which says:

Therefore, when you meet the unbelievers (in fight), smite at their necks, at length when ye have thoroughly subdued them, bind (the captives) firmly: therefore (is the time for) either generosity or ransom, until the war lays down its burdens. - Al Quran XLVII:4

What with ransom and the equipment of an ill equipped Muslim army, the Prophet, Mercy for mankind, was not in favour of killing the prisoners once they had been spared on the battlefield and were helpless in the hands of Muslims. There is evidence to the effect that he had once said: If Muti'm bin 'Adi had been alive today I would have released these prisoners (from Badr) without any ransom." (In gratitude to his protection offered to the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) on his return from Ta'if to Makkah and safe entry under escort of his two armed sons) He was always for mercy and in later periods it became an accepted rule that killing of prisoners was not permissible save where some of them are guilty of other crimes demanding their heads.

So with the Prophet it was neither favoring Abu Bakr (R) nor opposing 'Umar, who God only knows why, have been likened to 'Isa (P.B.U.H.) and Moses in their temperaments. A Prophet though human is far above these petty things and adopts only the right course without fear or favour.

'Umar Faruq's opinion was based on not letting the formidable enemies taken prisoners and being released to become much more formidable once they joined their group of the sworn enemies of Islam and Muslims. The Quran appeared to agree with him though with a difference when it said:

It is not fitting for a Prophet that he should have prisoners of war until he had thoroughly subdued (the enemies in the) land. You look for the temporal goods of the world, but Allah looketh to the Hereafter. And Allah is Exalted in might, Wise. Had it not been for a previous ordainment from Allah, a severe punishment would have reached you for the (ransom) that ye took. But (now) enjoy what ye took in war, lawful and good. But fear Allah, for Allah is oft-forgiving, Most Merciful. - Al Quran VIII: 67-69


 [next] It is evident from the wording of this verse that the admonition here stresses the point that in the battle of Badr they started taking prisoners before the enemy had been thoroughly subdued. Taking prisoners and ransom for their release had certainly been allowed to them already and it was on that account that the ransom taken from prisoners of Badr was declared clean and permitted, and no punishment was given for it. But a phase of warning there certainly was for momentarily overlooking S.XLVII: 4 at Badr. And 'you look to the temporal goods of the world and Allah looketh to the Hereafter is no happy commentary either, though general (not pinpointed).

As for the treatment meted out to the prisoners of war by the merciful and kind-hearted Prophet (P.B.U.H.), it was that reserved for guests. Many of them have left it on record that in provision of comforts, they were treated by the Muslims of Madinah like their own children. They gave us bread to eat when they and their families subsisted on dates, living as they were under straitened circumstances as borne out by the Quran: "Give them preference over themselves, even though poverty was their (own lot." (Q. LIX: IX). Only two prisoners of Badr were killed ('Uqbah bin Abi Mu'ait and Nadar bin Harith), for their earlier crimes.

In Ghazwah Banu Al Mustalaq more than hundred prisoners were taken but released without any ransom. And one of them, a woman was raised to a position of rare honour of becoming the Mother of the Believers (Javeriyah (R))

In Hudaibiyah's eighty invaders from Tan'im mount were arrested but were unconditionally released.

In the battIe of Hunain six thousand men and women were granted freedom without ransom. Some takers of prisoners had been compensated for the release by the Prophet himself. Certain others (like Shimr) when released were gifted with clothes and other gifts.

There is no example in the world history of such humane, generous and merciful treatment of invaders.

There is also an instance of exchange of prisoners of war mentioned in the books of Traditions of the Prophet (P.B. U.H.).


 [next] It was the result of these excellent teachings of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) that during the vast conquests of Iraq and Syriya, Egypt. Arabia, Iran and khurasan, no prisoners were taken from the vanquished fighting forces or civilians nor ransom comes for mention anywhere.

Although these armed confrontations were great trials for Muslims (loss of life, goods and other hardships), but it appears to be the wise Plan of the Lord of the Worlds in this dispensation that Islam should demonstrate that ideal pattern of wars and warfare, full of human sympathy, mercy and generosity.


A remarkable characteristic of the Da'wah (call to Faith) of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.), not met with in those of other prophets, is the presentation of Islam as a universal Faith (which actually it is, and has been the Faith of all the prophets of Allah from Adam, Noah to 'Isa Ibn Maryam and they one and all preached it with this denomination as brought out by the Quran in clear terms:

1. He has chosen you and imposed no difficulties, on you in religion it is the religion of your father Abraham. It is he who has named ye Muslim, - Al Quran xxn: 78

2. The religion before Allah is Islam (submission to His Will). Nor did the People of the Book dissent therefrom except through envy of each other, after knowledge had come to them. - Al Quran III: 19

3. If anyone denies a religion other than Islam (submission to Allah) never will it be accepted of him, and in the Hereafter he will be in the ranks (If those who have lost (ruined themselves). - Al Quran III: 85

And it was for this reason that from those early days when even the Makkans had not become well acquainted with Islam the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) had started propagating it among other nations and followers of other religions. Bilal (R) of Abyssinia. Suhaib Rumi, Salman Farsi, Addas of Nineveh are some of those who had entered the Fold of the religion of Allah as the prime representatives of Abyssinia, Greece, Iran and Central Asia.


 [next] That he was commissioned for the guidance of entire humanity (directly and indirectly) is supported by the Quran:

1. We have not sent thee but as a (Messenger) to all mankind, giving them Glad tidings, and warning them (against sin), but most men know not. - Al Quran XXXIV: 28

2. It is He Who has sent His Messenger with Guidance and the Religion of Truth, to make it prevail over all religion: and enough is Allah for a witness. - Al Quran XLVIII: 28 and LXI: 9

3. We sent thee not but as a mercy for all creatures - Al Quran XXI: 107

4. Say: "O men! I am sent unto you all, as the Messenger of Allah to Whom belongeth the dominion of the heavens and the earth: there is no god but He: it is He that giveth both life? and death. So believe in Allah and His Messenger. The unlettered Prophet, who believeth in Allah and His Word. follow Him that (so) ye may be guided. - Al Quran VII: 158

It was to follow these Quranic verses that the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) had sent letters conveying the message of Islam to those managing the affairs of various nations and religions. And in these letters he had written also this to each one of them that in case of rejection of Islam, you will come to grief not only because in your personal capacity you have deprived yourself of the greatest bounty of God but as a result of it your nation too shall stop short at your instance and you shall be held responsible for their misguidance and resulting ruination and shall pay for it, since in this edict you have not been addressed in your individual capacity but as their ruler, patron, leader and guide.

In connection with the propagation of Islam this measure adopted by the Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) is unparalleled in the history of the religions of the world and lives of religious leaders.

Since they did not resort to it, we can take it for granted that they themselves regarded their faiths as limited in scope and meant only for a particular nation in which they were raised. (Time was not ripe for a universal religion, man had not come of age and means of communication at his disposal in that distant past were not developed enough to bear the strain of this heavy service).

Now, if their followers digress from the prescribed path and go beyond the allowed limits, it is their own concern. It cannot become an authority from the religious point of view.


 [next] On 1st Muharram 7 A.H., the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) sent out his ambassadors with letters conveying the message of Islam to the rulers of kingdoms, petty chiefs of even principalities. Only that person was chosen as ambassador for any country who knew the language both spoken and written, so that he may worthily discharge the duty of propagation of Islam in that country.

So far the Prophet had not used a seal of his name and identity. Now that the situation demanded that to make the letters (edicts) reliable with his seal on them, he had to get it made. Made of silver, it had three words one above the other.

Muhammad Messenger of Allah

In looking at these edicts (some have been preserved and can be seen even today in museums and elsewhere) addressed to the Christian kings had in them invariably the following Quranic verse:

Say: 0 People of the Book! Come to common terms as between us and you that we worship none but Allah. That we associate no partners with Him: that we erect not from among ourselves, lords and patrons other than Allah.

Now we shall briefly take up these ambassadorial performances and their reactions one by one:


To Asham bin Abjaz, the Christian king of Abyssinia the edict of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) had been taken by 'Amr bin Umayyah AI-Dauri:

In the name of Allah, Gracious, Most Merciful

This is a letter from Muhammad, the Apostle of Allah (P.B.U.H.) to Najashi Asham the king of Abyssinia. May thou rest in peace. I make a beginning with the praise of Allah Who is the Sovereign, the Holy One, the source of Peace (and Perfection), the Guardian of Faith, the preserver of Safety, the Exalted in Might, the irresistible, the Justly Proud. And I make it manifest to you that 'Isa Ibn Maryam is the created being and Allah's


[next] Command, which was sent towards Maryam, virgin (Mary), pw-e and chaste, causing her to conceive 'Isa. Allah created Adam with His Hand and Breath. Now I call you to belief in Allah Who is One and the Only without any partner and spend thy life in obedience to Him alone. And follow me and affirm my teachings sincerely, since I am the Messenger of Allah.

Before this, I have sent a paternal cousin of mine, Ja'far at the head of a party of Muslims. Let them rest in peace with you. Najashi, shed pride since I have called you to Allah the Most Exalted in Might. Lo! I have conveyed to you the command of Allah and explained to you everything clearly. It is now in the fitness of things that you listen to my advice. And Peace be on him who takes to the Path of Guidance.

Najashi on perusal of this edict embraced Islam, and wrote back this letter to the Prophet (P.B.U.H.)

In the name of Allah, Beneficent, Most Merciful

To Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, from Najashi AI-Asham bin Abjaz. 0 Prophet of Allah, Allah's Peace, Mercy and Blessings on you. Allah save Whom there is no one worthy of worship, and Who has guided me to the Straight Path of Islam. Now I must submit that your edict honored me greatly. Whatever you have said about 'Isa, by Allah, the Creator and Lord of the earth and the sky, he ('Isa) is not a whit more than that. His position is only that you have stated in your edict. We have learnt your teachings. Your cousin and other Muslims are quite comfortable here with me. I affirm that you are the Messenger of Allah, true yourself and bringing out the truth of other people. I enter bai'ah (take oath of loyalty) with you. I have already performed the ceremonial bai'ah at the hand of your cousin and sworn obedience to Allah and I am sending my son Arha' to you. I am only the master of myself and if you order me, I shall present myself there, at your service, since it is my firm conviction that whatever you say is True."

"O Messenger of Allah may peace be on you."

2. Munzar bin Sawi was the king of Bahrain, paying tribute to the Emperor of Iran. Ala' bin Al Hadrani had taken the Prophets edict to him. He too embraced Islam and so did the major part of his subjects. In reply to the edict he had written to the Prophet that some people have manifested great liking for Islam, while others have shown their aversion to it, some others have even opposed it. My land abounds in Jews and Magi. I may deal with them as You direct me." The Prophet wrote back to him:

(1) He who is exhorted does so for his own good.

(2) He who sticks to his Judaism or Muzdaism should pay Jizyah.


 [next] (3) The letter to Jaffar and Abd sons of Jolandi of 'Oman had been sent with 'Amr bin 'As (R). 'Amr says that when I reached Oman, I met 'Abd, a chief and gentle and more polite than his brother. I told him that I was an ambassador of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) and had come to him and his brother.,

'Abd said in reply: "My brother is older than I am and also the ruler of this land. I shall take you to him. But please let me know what do you call us to?"

'Amr bin 'As said: "We call you to Allah, the One and only. God, Allah Who has no partners. Also to bear witness that Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) is His servant and Messenger. "

'Abd said to 'Amr: "You are the son of the chief of his community.

Tell me what did your father do, for we can take him as a model. "

'Amr bin 'As replied: He died and had not believed in the Prophet. If only he had believed and affirmed the uprightness of the Apostle of Allah.

"I too was in agreement with my father until Allah guided me to Islam."

'Abd: "When did you come to follow Muhammad?"

'Amr bin 'As: "Recently".

'Abd: "Where was it. "

'Arnr bin 'As: "At Najashi's, court. And Najashi too embraced Islam."

'Abd: And what did his subjects do to Najashi?"

'Arnr bin 'As: "They let him remain a Muslim. And they too embraced Islam."

'Abd: (Amazed) And Bishop and other clergy too?"

'Amr bin 'As: "Yes."

'Abd: Mind your tongue. Nothing more degrading for man than lying."

'AmI bin 'As: I did not tell a lie. Islam does not permit it. "


[next] Abd: What was the reaction of Heraclitus? Does he know about Najashi's Islam?

'Amr bin 'As: Najashi used to pay tribute to Heraclitus. But from the time he has embraced Islam, he has declared that he would not pay him anything. "

Heraclitus came to know about it. His brother, Binaq said to him: Najashi, this humble servant of your majesty has the insolence to deny payment of tribute to you. And he has discarded your faith also." Heraclitus said to him: "What is wrong with it if he has chosen a new Faith for himself and entered its fold also?" What is that to me (how does it concern me)? By God, if this exalted position of emperorship had not stood in my way, I too most readily would have followed Najashi."

'Abd: Just think over what you are saying?

'Amr bin 'As: "By God, I am telling the truth."

'Abd: All right. Tell me what are those things that he enjoins and what forbids.

'Amr bin 'As: He commands you to obey Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, and forbids transgression against Him. He also forbids fornication, use of liquor and worship of stone idols and the cross."

'Abd: How excellent are the commands he invites us to.

How I wish my brother agreed with me and both of us embraced Islam at his hands! It is my considered opinion that if my brother rejected this message and remained inclined to this worldliness, he will prove deleterious to his own country as well.

'Arm bin 'As: "If he embraces Islam, the Prophet will let him rule his country. He will do only that much in your system realizing sadaqat from your haves will distribute them among the have nots in your kingdom."

'Abd: "This is very nice. But what do you mean by sadaqat?"

'Amr bin 'As explained to him the rules of Zakat. But when he told him that Zakat has also to be paid from Camels (depending on the number of animals and the period of possession, 'Abd said to him: "Would they demand sadaqah from our animals also?" A camel takes care of itself by feeding on tree leaves and can go out to quench its thirst."

'Amr bin 'As said: "Yes sadaqah is realized from your camels also."


 [next] 'Abd: I do not know what is going to be the reaction of my community men in connection with this item. They are in large numbers and dispersed over a large area. I have my doubts in this behalf.

In short, 'Amr bin 'As stayed there for a while and during this period 'Abd used to communicate to his brother whatever passed here between his and 'Amr. One day 'Amr bin 'As was called to the presence of the king. The mace bearers (ushers) presented him to the king holding his arms on either side. The king ordered release of his arms. And when 'Amr intended to take a seat, they again stopped him. The king asked him: What is your name? 'Amr handed over the letter of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) to him. Jaffar broke the seal, read it and gave it to his brother. He too read it. 'Amr noticed that the younger brother was really gentle. The king asked him: "How it goes with Quraysh (where do they stand) 'Amr bin 'As told him that they had, one and all, (somehow) willy nilly submitted to his (the Prophet (P.B.U.H.)) authority. The king asked him: Who are his companions? 'Amr bin 'As: They are those who came to embrace Islam willingly, and cutting themselves off from other involvements remain attached to him, having judged and tested him in the light of thoughtful consideration, intellect and experience. The king said to him: "Do see me tomorrow."

'Amr bin 'As next day saw the king's brother first. He said to him: "If no hazard to our kingdom threatens us, the king will embrace Islam."

'Amr bin 'As then went to see the king, who said to him: "I have given serious thought to this affair. If I submit to a person whose armies have not yet entered my country, I shall be regarded the weakest person (monarch) in Arabia, whereas (I am not weak) and if his armies really come here, I can give them such a tough fight you might have never experienced before that."

'Amr bin 'As said: "Very well, I shall be going back tomorrow." The king said to him: No, stay tomorrow also.

Next day, the king called him and both the brothers (Jaffar and 'Abd) embraced Islam at his hands, and the major portion of his subjects followed suit,


 [next] 4. Munzar bin Harith bin Abu Shimar was the ruler of Damascus and governor of Syria. Shuja' bin Wahab-al Asadi went to him as ambassador. On reading the letter he at once flew into a rage and said to the ambassador that he would himself invade Madinah. But finally (at parting he honoured him which was his due. He did not however embrace Islam.

5. Hanzah bin Ali, ruler of Yamamah was a Christian. Saleet bin 'Amr had taken the blessed letter to him. His arrogant reply to the ambassador was that if to help the Islamic territories his claim to rule in agreed upon. I can become a Muslim. Shortly after this ignorance and arrogance he died.

6. Juraih bin Mati, entitled Maquqas, ruler of Alexandria and Egypt was a Christian. Hatib bin Abi Balta'ah went to him as the Prophet's (P.B.U.H.) ambassador., He had added to his letter the warning that if he rejected the call to Islam, he would be held responsible for the deprivation of all Egyptians (copt's) deprivation of this greatest bounty of Allah, Islam and liable to punishment for it in the Hereafter. In addition to the delivery of the letter (edict), he had enlightened him in these words:

Since, there has been a person in this country before you who raised the land paganish slogan: "I am your most exalted Lord" before his courtiers and subjects in general, and Allah brought him down in disgrace here and worse still in the Hereafter. When Allah's wrath descended on them everything was ruined. So it is imperative that he be warned and should take a lesson from others and not that others should take a lesson from you.

The king said to him (the ambassador) that he himself had subscribed to a religion and shall not discard it, before he come upon a better one.

Hatib said to him: I call you to the Islamic Faith which makes you independent of all other religions.

The Prophet has called all the communities, nations and religions to Islam. The Quraysh opposed it and the Judaic community showed animosity, but the Christians have been closest among all these in gentleness and love. By God the way Moses gave the glad tidings of the coming of Jesus after him, so did Jesus convey Glad tidings of Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) to be raised after him (the Messenger of Allah with the "Kingdom of Heaven Here and Hereafter" that Jesus had prophesied. We invite you to the Quran as you invite those holding Torah to the teachings of Injil (the revelation to 'Isa Ibn Maryam). Whichever prophet was raised in any community's existence, is his community or millat and the prophet was their prophet. Therefore, it is imperative that "you should believe in and obey the prophet (P.B.U.H.) you come upon in your lifetime. You should take it that we are calling you to the Faith of Masih (Jesus Christ the Messiah).


 [next] Magugas said that he thought about your prophet (of Arabia) but he did not feel inclined to him in the least. Although he does not hold back from anything desirable, I can perceive that he is neither a sorcerer doing danger, nor a lying soothsayer. Rather he manifests signs of prophethood. Anyway, I shall think over this issue a little longer. Then he put that letter in an ivory casket and sealing it sent it to his treasury for preservation. He sent gifts to the Prophet and in reply to his letter he wrote that he knew that a prophet was yet to arrive, but somehow he took it into his head that he would come in Syria. The well-known mule, 'Duldul' was sent by him as gift to the Prophet.

7. Heraclitus, the well-known ruler of the eastern wing of the Roman empire (because of which Syria, Iraq and adjoining territories came to be called Rome by the Arabs was a Christian. (Pagan Romans after persecution of Christion, for a long time had adopted Christianity but corrupted it thoroughly with their Greece-roman pagan tradition according to their own taste and poor Christians, their subjects were helpless). Dahya bin Khalifah Al-Kalbi had taken the Prophet's (p.B.U.H.) edict to him. He met the monarch at Bait-al-Maqdis. Heraclitus held a grand darbar in honour of the ambassador from the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) and enquired of him many things about him (the Prophet (P.B.U.H.)

After that for further investigation from other independent sources, he ordered that if there is any citizen of Makkah present in the town, he should be brought to his presence.

As a matter of chance, Abu Sufyan with some other traders of Makkah had come to Syria for business: He was taken to bait-al-Maqdis with his companions and brought to the royal court. He said to his companions that during my interogation of Abu Sufyan if he makes a false statement point it out to me at once.

Abu Sufyan was a sworn enemy of the Prophet these days. He is on record to have admitted that if he had no fear of being exposed by his own companions he would have said many things against fact, but under the circumstances he had no choice save sticking to truth.

The interrogation stated like this:

Caesar: "Tell me about the family and ancestry of. Muhammad."

Abu Sufyan: Traders, noble and great.


 [next] On hearing this answer from him Heraclitus said: "The prophets have always come of noble families so that none may fell degraded in obedience to them."

Caesar: "Has anyone claimed prophethood in his family before him?"

Abu Sufyan: "No"

At this statement of the Sufyan Caesar remarked: If it had been so I would have taken it to be emulation of the former claimant or following his tradition.

Caesar: Was he used to tell lies before his claim to prophethood or was he ever accused of slander?

Abu Sufyan: No.

Remark of Heraclitus on this answer from Abu Sufyan was: "It is not possible that a person who does not tell lies relating to men, could have the audacity to tell lies pertaining to God."

Caesar: Has anyone of his ancestors been a king?

Abu Sufyan: "No."

Heraclitus' remark on this answer was: "If it had been so I would have attributed it to his clever device to create a kingdom for himself in continuity of ancestral tradition under cover of prophethood.

Caesar: The majority of Muhammad's (P.B.U.H.) followers comprise the poor, the weak and the indigent or chiefs of tribes and the mighty?

Abu Sufyan : Meek and lowly.

Heraclitus on this answer of his gave the following remark:

"The early followers of every prophet have been the poor and the meek. (They are the first to seek support and justice honour and fraternity in society since they have long been oppressed and depressed).

Caesar: Is the number of his followers on the increase or decreasing?

Abu Sufyan: It is going up day by day.


 [next] Heraclitus by way of explanation added: "Belief has this characteristic that it develops becoming firmer with the passage of time and attains perfection.

Caesar: Has anyone getting sick of his faith, ever become apostate?

Abu Sufyan: No.

Heraclitus said: "The taste and joy of Belief is always like that. Once it has gone down to the heart and the soul has been influenced by it, it does not part."

Caesar: Has he ever been guilty of the breach of Trust.

Abu Sufyan: "No. But this year we have entered a pact with him. Nobody knows what may happen.

Abu Sufyan says that he could add only this small sentence to the true brief answer -"Anything may happen. But Caesar did not pay any attention to it, and said: "Undoubtedly the prophets are not faithless to their plighted word. Only the worldly wise are guilty of breach of faith. And the Prophets never seek worldly gains.

Caesar: Have you fought any battle with this person?

Abu SufYan: "Yes."

Caesar: What was the outcome of the battle?

Abu SufYan: At times he was the victor as in Badr and at some other time we came out as victors.

Heraclitus said: The Prophets of Allah's are like that. But finally the divine aid and victory are theirs.

Caesar: What are his teachings?

Abu Sufyan: He enjoins worship of one and only God, abandoning the ways ofthe ancestors, idol worship, having recourse to modest and chastity and kind treatment of one's blood relations.


[next] Heraclitus remarked: These are the signs of the Promised Messiah that have come down to us. I knew that "that Prophet" was about to be raised, but not that he will be raised in Arabia. Abu Sufyan! If you have been true in your answers, he will one day dominate the land where I am sitting (Syria and Bait-al-Maqdis (Jerusalem). How I long to be with him and take to washing his feet.

After this the blessed letter of the Apostle of Allah was read out and listening to it incited the courtiers to raise their voices in protest and we were driven out of the darbar. From that day onward my own vileness and objectless was impressed on my heart and also the future greatness of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.).


Khuro Parvez was the emperor of half the eastern world, subscribing to Zorostrian religion. Abdullah bin Khudamah had taken the edict of the Apostle of Allah to him. It ran like this:

In the name of Allah, Beneficent, Most Merciful.

"From Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) the Messenger of Allah to the great Kisra of Iran. Peace be on him who takes to the right path and believes in Allah and His Apostle (P.B.U.H.) and bears witness that there is none worthy of worship save Allah and that Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) is His servant and Messenger of Allah. I have been sent to the entire progeny of Adam (PB.U.H.), so that whoever is living in this age may be warned of the Divine Retribution and in case of those rejecting these truths the word of Allah may prove true. Embrace Islam and you will come to safety or else the fault of Magi (adherents of Mazdaism will become your accountability.)"

Khusro on looking at the blessed letter tore it to pieces in a rage and blurted out that a subject of mine writes a letter to me and in it his name precedes mine (a serious presumption indeed!).

After that Khusro sent orders to Bazam, his viceroy in Yemen and the entire Arabia was regarded to be under his authority and rule or at least under his political influence, that this person should be arrested and sent to him.

Bazam sent out a military contingent under the command of Khar Khusro. Accompanying them was an administrative officer, Banoyah with instruction to study the affairs of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) and take him to Kisra. In case he refuses to go, he should come back and submit a report.


 [next] When this military detachment reached Ta'if, the Ta'ifians were overjoyed that Muhammad is now sure to come to harm since Kisra the emperor of Iran had ordered punishment for his insolence.

When these officers presented themselves to the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) at Madinah, he asked them to come the next day. When they came to him the next day he said to them: "Last night your king has been killed by Allah. Go and make it certain to yourselves. On hearing the news, they returned to Yemen. The viceroy had received this news officially, that Khusro had been murdered by his son and the claimant to the throne was Sheroyah, the murderer of his father.

Now after this incident, Bazam made thorough enquiries about the habits, morals, teachings and guidance of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) and (duly satisfied) he entered the fold of Islam and so did the majority of his courtiers and the subjects, also embraced Islam.

The ambassador sent by the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) came back to report that the monarch of Iran had tum his letters. At this he said: "He has torn the mandate of his nation to rule."

This brief sentence pronounced by the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) proved so horrible for the Khusro dynasty ruling over half of the world from Iran for centuries (since the days of Syrus the Great 529 B.C., the founder of this empire), got wiped out completely, leaving no trace of any ruler after Muslim conquest of Iran. Amazing indeed for a supreme power that had time and again brought down Greece and Rome.

Some rulers had embraced Islam at the hands of the preachers detailed by the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) on various mission.

1. Thamamah, the ruler of Najd, entered the fold of Islam in the 6th year after Hijrah.

2. Jablah bin Aayham was the king of Ghassan, the well-known kingdom of Arabia, in the 7th year after Hijrah.

3. Farwah ibn 'Amr Khuza'i, was governor of Syria of the Caesarian empire. When he had embraced Islam, Caesar called him to his presence and ordered him to discard it. On his refusal to do so, Caesar incarcerated him and later killed him. This sincere slave


[next] of Allah, so dear to Him, sacrificed wealth, authority and rule, honour and dignity, and dearer than all these, life itself, but could not part with Islam which he had come to regard superior most. 4. Akeedar, ruler of Danmah-al-landal, embraced Islam in the 9th year after Hijrah.

5. Zi-al-Kala' Himyari ruled over certain districts of Yemen and Ta'if and ruled over the great old and famous tribe of Himyar. He had himself called god by the people and compelled them to prostrate before him. After entering the fold of Islam he had freed eighteen thousand slaves in a day. During the period of caliphate of 'Umar Faruq (R) he abdicated his throne voluntarily and came to Madinah to get settled there. Here his life pattern was that of an abstinent, a hermit.


An idea of the fine and well-planned propagation of Islam can be had briefly by the deputations that came to the Prophet from far off places in the country.

Deputation's arrival, return and meeting different communities and tribes at every stage of their journey and conveying the voice of Islam reached one and all. They came across-how beautifully all this was conducted.

The defensive battles that the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) fought under compulsion were limited to a small area. But when we look at these deputations we find that they were coming from every part of the country.

Guidance to the Right Path and Islam are the two streams that the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) made to gush forth in the dry land without a blade of grass to which rushed all those thirsting for them from every comer of the country.

The other argument in favour of a general call to Faith by him is the coming of these deputations to him. The following are the tribes whose deputations came to the Prophet (P.B.U.H.). Those coming to him for political or personal ends have not been included in this list:

Dans, Sada', Thaqif, Abd-al-Qays, Bani Hanifah, Tay, Ash'arin, Azd, Farvah Jazami, 'Am dan, Truiq bin Abd-Allah, Najib, Bani Sa'd Huzaim, Banu Asad, Babra, 'Azra, Khaulan, Maharib, Ghassan, Bani-al-Harith, Bani Eish, Chamid, Bani Fazarah, Salaman, Najran, Nakh's.

Now we shall take up briefly the account of the above deputations.



[next] Tufail bin 'Arnr Dausi's account of entering the fold of Islam has come for mention earlier. When departing for home he had made a request to the Prophet that he should pray that his community too, may enter the fold of Islam. The Prophet prayed for it: "0 Allah! Make Tufail a sign." When Tufail got home, his old father came to see him. Tufail said to him: "My dear father! now neither I am yours nor you are mine." The old man asked him: "Why so?" Tufail told him: I have taken to Islam, the Faith of Muhammad." The old man said to him: "My dear son! Whichever is your faith, the same is mine." Tufail said: "That is very good. Now, please get up, take bath, put on clean clothes and come to me so that I may impart teachings of Islam to you." Then came his wife and with her too came up the same topic of talk and she also embraced Islam. After these successes he started with general call for Islam to his people, but they did not pay any attention to his call.

Tufail once more went to see the Prophet and confided to him that his community was given to fornication and adultery very much. Since Islam strictly forbids it, my people do not subscribe to Islam. He requested the Prophet to pray for it too. He prayed as requested: "0 Allah! Show Daus the Straight Path." Then; he said to Tufail to go home.


Call men to the Religion of Allah, treat them kindly. This time Tufail scored better success. In the 5th year of Hijrah he had converted 80 persons to Islam, with whom he visited madinah. On learning that the Prophet had gone to Khaiber he too made it his destination and it was there that all these companions of his saw the Prophet. Ja'far (R) the cousin of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) also reached Khaibar from Abyssinia with all those Abyssinian converts, after a long stay there since his migration from Makkah with others.

Ja'far's reaching Khaibar with his Abyssinian converts and Tufail with his own community's Muslim families was in a way a warning to the Jews that whereas the Islamic teachings had succeeded in winning over men from such far off places as Yemen and Abyssinia, they persisted witl1 their reliance on their forts of stone and bricks in opposing Islam.



 [next] This deputation had come to the Prophet in P.B.U.H. First of all, a person of this community, Ziyad bin Harith Sada'i came to the Prophet. On a second visit by the same Ziyad came with 15 persons of his community. Sa'd bin 'Ubadah was detailed to look after their needs. After his return to his people. They responded to the call of Islam and so many became Muslims.

Ziyad submitted to the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) that had only one well to draw water from in their tribal habitations. During winters there was no difficulty but in summers it dried up. The tribe get dispersed to tide over the summer somehow. And they have recently taken to Islam. They need to be taught and trained in the Islamic system. Kindly pray for us that the well may not dry up i summer season.

The Prophet asked him to bring seven pebbles to him which Ziyad readily did. The Prophet kept them in his hand and returned them to him. He instructed him to drop them one by one into the well saying Allah every time a pebble was dropped. Ziyad is reported to have stated later that after the dropping of pebbles, the well remained filled with ample water for their needs.


The first person of Thaqif tribe who came to learn the teachings of Islam, to the Prophet (P.B. U.H.) was Urwah bin Mas'ood Thaqafi. He was the chief of his tribe. On the occasion of the treaty of Hudaibiyah he had come to the Prophet as the advocate (representative) of the Makkan pagan. After the battle of Hawazin and Thaqif with the Grace of Allah he carne to Madinah and embraced Islam. 'Urwah had ten wives. The Prophet directed him to retain four of them and divorce the rest. He complied with the orders.

When 'Urwah (R) had learnt Islamic teachings, he requested the Prophet to permit him to go and call people to Islam. The Prophet said to him that his community will murder him. 'Urwah submitted that his people loved him just as a lover has love and regard for his beloved. He came back to his people and started preaching. One day while he was offering prayer in the upper story of his house, some wretch shot an arrow which martyred him.

Although 'Urwah could not survive, the voice that he had raised, the call that he had given to his community did not fail to melt their hardened hearts. Soon after, the nation sent their representatives to the Prophet so that they may acquire adequate knowledge about Islam.


[next] This deputation had come to the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) in 9 A.H. The leader of the deputation was 'Abd Yaleel to convey the Message to whom the Prophet had gone to Ta'if in the tenth year of his raising and he had not only refused to listen to him but had set the street urchin, and vagabonds to vex and disgrace the Prophet, and at whose encouragement stones were rained on him and dirt and filth was flung on him.

The Apostle of Allah had declared that he would not curse them. For, if they themselves do not come to believe in Islam, Allah will grace their progeny with Belief and Faith. And now the same enemies of Islam had found a place for Islam in their hearts and had come to the Prophet with longing hearts.

Mughirah bin Shaibah submitted to the Apostle of Allah that the Thaqifites were the people of his community. "Shall I take them with me as my guests and entertain them, he sought permission of the Prophet.

The Prophet said in reply: I do not disallow you to honour your own community. But let them stay at a place where they are within hearing distance of the recitation of the Quran.

So their tents were set on the open space of the mosque, where they could listen to the recitation of the Quran and watch people praying. This device was helpful in impressing upon their minds the truth of Islam and they entered Islam through Bai'ah at the hands of the Apostle of Allah. Before Bai'ah they sought exemption from prayer. The Prophet pointed out to them: "There is no goodness in any religion without prayer. Then they requested him not to be caned for Jihad and Zakat should not be realized from them. The Prophet accepted this request and explained to the companions that under the impact of Islam they would automatically observe both elements.

'Abd Yaleel, their leader, at different times, discussed the following issues as well with the Messenger of Allah.


o Apostle of Allah! What is your opinion about fornication? The people of our station are so often away from their homes and the irresistible sexual urge of many makes fornication inevitable. The Apostle of Allah (P.B.U.H.) said: "fornication is strictly prohibited and Allah has ordained in His book the Quran: Nor come nigh to adultery: for it is an indecent (deed) and an evil way. - Al Quran XVII: 32



The second question that he put to the Prophet was as to his opinion (edict) about interest. This is virtually our own goods. The Apostle of Allah (P.B.U.H.) said: "You can take your principal (actual amount lent). Just think: over, Allah has warned thus:

O ye who believe! Fear Allah and give up what remains of your demand for usury, if ye are indeed believers. (Q. II: 278)


The third question that he brought up was about taking liquor: "O Apostle of Allah! What do you say about liquor? It is after all our own country's juice and we cannot live without it. "

The Prophet told him: "Allah has ordained its prohibition, just listen what He has declared in the Quran:

O ye who believes! Intoxicants and gambling: sacrificing to stones, and (divination by arrows are an abomination. Eschew such (abomination) that ye may prosper. (Q. V: 90)

Next day he came and submitted: "very well, we shall abide by what you have ordained. But what is to be done to rabbah's this, rabbah is the feminine of Rab (Lord and Sustainer or chelisher). The goddess they worshipped was called 'rabbah.' The Prophet replied: It Demolish it. It

The deputationists cried out: "Ah! If 'rabbah' got news of it that you are bent upon its demolition, she is sure to destroy us."

'Umar bin Khattab (R) said to him: Alas Ibn 'Abd Yaleel! You do not realize that it is nothing but a piece of stone."

Ibn Abd yaleel said to him peevishly: "Umar! We have not come here to talk to you." Then addressing the Prophet, he submitted: "kindly take the responsibility of getting it felled by your own men." The Prophet said in reply: "All right: I shaH send somebody to do it for you."

One of them submitted, adding: "Send the man undertaking demolition after we have left. He will not accompany us. "


[next] In short all the deputationists returned home as believers.